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Reply with quote  #1

Somalia, as you may remember, has essentially been in a state of anarchy since 1991. Only Somaliland, whose independence is not recognised despite some very sound grounds for being such, and to a lesser extent Puntland, which does not claim independence, have escaped this. The Transitional Federal Government incorporates most of the factions that fought the war, save for some radical Islamists on one hand, and Somaliland on the other.

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Reply with quote  #2 
The new President of Somalia:

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Reply with quote  #3 
The new president has his own party and wasn't part of any major faction in the Civil War, AFAIK. If we can trace the lineage of it all:

Somali Revolution (1986-1991):
Very loose rag-tag coalition of rebel groups fighting to overthrow the SRSP or military dictatorship of Siad Barre, comprised of the following groups:
United Somali Congress (USC), which divided into Ali Mahdi and Aidid factions.
Somali National Movemnt (SNM), which re-founded Somaliland
Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), which founded Puntland
Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), which split into two.
There were several more factions besides these, but the most important ones are listed here.

Civil War and failed intervention (1991-2000):
On January 26, 1991, the Siad Barre regime collapsed. His loyalists formed the Soamli National Front (SNF) which attempted to retake power. However, by May this was impossible so the SNF would become just another faction of the war. However, the victorious rebels couldn't reach a settlement on establishing a new regime, let alone the democracy they desired. Foreign intervention followed and we all know where that led...

The factional fighting continued, mostly between the SNA around Aidid and the SSA around Ali Mahdi. Eventually Puntland and Jubaland were carved out, a separatist movement in the Southwest emerged. Somaliland, apart from border clashes with Puntland, has no interest in rejoining the rest of Somalia. But only Somaliland and Puntland established any kind of order, thus far.

Transitions and Islamists (2000)
The Transitional National Government was not recognised by the rebels, but by 2004 a reconciliation allowed the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) to be formed.

However, a new enemy emerged: the Islamic Courts Union. By 2006 they came to power in Mogadishu and established some kind of order, but not the sort everyone in or out of Somalia desired. So fighting continued, though the Islamists themselves have split. One faction has joined the TFG, the other has become essentially a local section of al-Qaeda known as al-Shabaab.

So the TFG now is attempting to re-found the Somali Republic and give Somalia its first proper state structure, under a federal system.
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