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Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #31 

Dynasty №12: House of Oldenburg

Founded in the early 12th century, this House has mainly provided the rulers for the County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. It is more famous, however, for having been the reigning dynasty of Denmark for over five centuries.

The descent begins with the Count of Oldenburg who was elected to be King of Denmark in 1448.

I. House of Oldenburg:

  1. Christian I of Denmark (1426 - 1481), father of...
  2. John, King of Denmark (1455 - 1513), father of...
  3. Christian II of Denmark (1481 - 1559), first cousin once removed of...


II. House of Oldenburg (Second branch) [Descended from Christian I of Denmark through his son, Frederick I of Denmark]:

  1. Frederick II of Denmark (1534 - 1588), father of...
  2. Christian IV of Denmark (1577 - 1648), father of...
  3. Frederick III of Denmark (1609 - 1670), father of...
  4. Christian V of Denmark (1646 - 1699), father of...
  5. Frederick IV of Denmark (1671 - 1730), father of...
  6. Christian VI of Denmark (1699 - 1746), father of...
  7. Frederick V of Denmark (1723 - 1766), father of...
  8. Christian VII of Denmark (1749 - 1808), father of...
  9. Frederick VI of Denmark (1768 - 1839), first cousin of...


III. House of Oldenburg (Third branch) [Descended from Frederick V of Denmark through his son, Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark]:

  1. Christian VIII of Denmark (1786 - 1848), father of...
  2. Frederick VII of Denmark (1808 - 1863), seventh cousin twice removed of...


IV. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg [Descended from Christian III of Denmark through his son, John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg]:

  1. Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1798 - 1869), father of...
  2. Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1829 - 1880), father of...
  3. Ernst Gunther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1863 - 1921), first cousin of...


V. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (Second branch) [Descended from Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, through his son, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein]:

  1. Albert, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1869 - 1931), seventh cousin of...


VI. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg [Descended from Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, through his son, August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck]:

  1. Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1855 - 1934), father of...
  2. Wilhelm Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1891 - 1965), father of...
  3. Peter, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1922 - 1980), father of...
  4. Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein (b. 1949).

The Danish monarchy became hereditary during the reign of King Frederick III. It was semi-Salic and a series of renunciations made a younger cadet of the House the legitimate King in 1863, but that is a story for another time.
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IV-A. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg:

  1. John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (1545 - 1622), father of...
  2. Christian, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Ærø (1570 - 1633), uncle of...
  3. Johann Christian, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen (1607 - 1653), father of...
  4. Christian Adolf, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen (1641 - 1702), father of...
  5. Leopold Christian, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen (1678 - 1707), father of...
  6. Leopold Karl (1705 - c. 1737).

Leopold Karl was born of a morganatic marriage. The actual succession went as follows...

  1. Leopold Christian, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen (1678 - 1707), brother of...
  2. Louis Charles, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen (1684 - 1708), father of...
  3. Christian Adolph, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen (1707 - 1709), first cousin twice removed of...


IV-B. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg [Descended from Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, through his son, Ernest Günther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg]:

  1. Ernest August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1660 - 1731), uncle of...
  2. Christian August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1696 - 1754), father of...
  3. Frederick Christian I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1721 - 1794), father of...
  4. Frederick Christian II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1765 - 1814), father of...
  5. Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1798 - 1869), same as IV-1.

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IV-B-A. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg:

  1. Ernest Günther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1609 - 1689), father of...
  2. Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1652 - 1692), brother of...
  3. Ernest August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1660 - 1731), same as IV-B-1.

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VI-A. House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck:

  1. August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1612 - 1675), father of...
  2. August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1652 - 1689), father of...
  3. Frederick William I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1682 - 1719), nephew of...
  4. Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1653 - 1728), father of...
  5. Frederick William II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1687 - 1749), father of...
  6. Frederick William III, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1723 - 1757), nephew of...
  7. Charles Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1690 - 1774), brother of...
  8. Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1697 - 1775), grandfather of...
  9. Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1757 - 1816), father of...
  10. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1785 - 1831), father of...
  11. Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1813 - 1878), brother of...
  12. Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1814 - 1885), father of...
  13. Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1855 - 1934), same as VI-1.

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TO BE CONTINUED...

Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #32 
Dynasty №12: House of Oldenburg (Part Two)


There is a younger line of the House of Oldenburg, still extant, that managed to obtain control of the titular realm through treaties and renunciations. It descends from the third son of King Frederick I of Denmark.

I. House of Holstein-Gottorp:
  1. Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1526 - 1586), father of...
  2. Frederick II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1568 - 1587), brother of...
  3. Philip, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1570 - 1590), brother of...
  4. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1575 - 1616), father of...
  5. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1597 - 1659), father of...
  6. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1641 - 1695), father of...
  7. Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1671 - 1702), father of...
  8. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1700 - 1739), father of...
  9. Peter III of Russia (1728 - 1762), father of...
  10. Paul I of Russia (1754 - 1801), father of...
  11. Alexander I of Russia (1777 - 1825), brother of...
  12. Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia (1779 - 1831), brother of...
  13. Nicholas I of Russia (1796 - 1855), father of...
  14. Alexander II of Russia (1818 - 1881), father of...
  15. Alexander III of Russia (1845 - 1894), father of...
  16. Nicholas II of Russia (1868 - 1918), father of...
  17. Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia (1904 - 1918), first cousin of...

II. House of Brasov [Descended from Alexander III of Russia through his son, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia]:
  1. George Mikhailovich, Count Brasov (1910 - 1931).
II-1 was born of a morganatic marriage, however. The actual successor of the unfortunate Tsarevich was his first cousin once removed...

II (Real). House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov [Descended from Alexander II of Russia through his son, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia]:
  1. Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia (1876 - 1938), father of...
  2. Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich of Russia (1917 - 1992), second cousin of...

III. House of Romanov-Ilyinsky [Descended from Alexander II of Russia through his son, Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia]:
  1. Paul Ilyinsky (1928 - 2004), father of...
  2. Prince Dimitri Pavlovich Romanovsky-Ilyinsky (b. 1954).
There are several important things to note at this point:
1) The Russian succession (according to Emperor Paul I) was semi-Salic.
2) Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich of Russia is widely considered to have been the last dynast.
3) As such, his daughter (Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna) is now the heiress of Russia.
4) This has no bearing on the Oldenburger succession, as Paul I renounced his rights in 1773, but not in favour of Gustav III of Sweden, who was the father of his third cousin...

IV. House of Holstein-Gottorp (Swedish line) [Descended from Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, through his son, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin]:
  1. Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden (1778 - 1837), father of...
  2. Gustav, Prince of Vasa (1799 - 1877).
The beneficiary was someone else further down the line.

V. House of Holstein-Gottorp (Oldenburger line) [Descended from Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, through his son, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin]:
  1. Frederick August I, Duke of Oldenburg (1711 - 1785), father of...
  2. Wilhelm, Duke of Oldenburg (1754 - 1823), first cousin of...

VI. House of Holstein-Gottorp (Second Oldenburger line) [Descended from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, through his son, Prince Georg Ludwig of Holstein-Gottorp]:
  1. Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (1755 - 1829), father of...
  2. Augustus, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (1783 - 1853), father of...
  3. Peter II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (1827 - 1900), father of...
  4. Frederick Augustus II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (1852 - 1931), father of...
  5. Nikolaus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Oldenburg (1897 - 1970), father of...
  6. Anton-Günther, Duke of Oldenburg (1923 - 2014), father of...
  7. Christian, Duke of Oldenburg (b. 1955).
From a genetic point-of-view, the House of Oldenburg may belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b, very broadly speaking. It has been alleged that Emperor Peter III of Russia was not the biological father of Emperor Paul I of Russia. I have yet to see conclusive evidence that when the remains of the last Imperial family were found, the Y-DNA group of the Emperor matched that of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. 

I plan on returning to the House of Oldenburg in the future, as it is an interesting one.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #33 
From what I have read, it was the mitochondrial DNA of the Duke of Edinburgh that was used in testing; as he, the Empress and the Imperial children shared a uterine line his should have been the same as that of the remains identified as theirs, which it was. While theoretically his Y chromosome should match those of the Emperor and Tsesarevich, in view of the remoteness of their common male line ancestor (Frederik I of Denmark and Norway, 1471-1533) a closer male-line cousin was used for that test, though who that may have been was not specified in the sources I saw.

Personally I have little doubt that Paul I was the biological as well as legal son of Peter III, in view of their close resemblance physically and in character, the danger of attempting to pass off a cuckoo in the Imperial nest to a woman of Empress Elizabeth's intelligence and unforgiving temperament, and the advantages to the usurping Catherine II of suggesting that her son was a bastard with as much blood right to the throne as she had, which was none at all.
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #34 
Hmm, so it does seem that they didn't analyse the Y-chromosome, because the mtDNA would have been more certain. I wonder who that relative was. I suppose the mystery of the parentage of Emperor Paul I (if there is even one, as you point out) could be solved by testing a present-day Romanov and a member of the Grand Ducal branch. Anyway, it's not that important.

I had neglected to mention that there has also been some ambiguity about who the father of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden was. Legally, that was King Gustav III. Well, it's no longer relevant nowadays.

As the Romans said, the father is the man to whom the marriage points to. Maybe we should leave it at that.
Windemere

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Reply with quote  #35 
I think that the Y-chromosome DNA of the remains believed to be that of Czar Nikolai were compared to that of the remains believed to be that of Czarvich Alexei, and they matched. Possibly the Y-chromosome DNA may also have been compared to that of another male-line Romanov as well. Prince Philip's mitochondrial DNA was compared to that of the remains believed to be those of Czarina Alexandra and her 5 children, and they matched. Czarina Alexandra shared the same uterine lineage as Prince Philip/  And when the autosomal (ordinary recombinant nuclear) DNA was examined, it established a family relationship between the two adults and the 5 children. They also found the remains of 4 unrelated adults, the servants who were murdered along with the Imperial family. Also, there's apparently a bloodstained shirt on exhibit in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg that Czar Nikolai was wearing in 1891 when, as a young man, he was visiting Japan, and was slashed with a sabre as part of an assassination attempt (the Otsu Incident). The DNA from the bloodstain on the shirt was compared to the DNA from the remains believed to be that of Nikolai, and it matched. (The wikipedia article on the Otsu Incident states that the comparison was inconclusive, but further tests revealled a conclusive match. The uncertainty probably was caused by a heteroplasmic mutation in Czar Nikolai's DNA, and the fact that multiple DNA samples were found in the bloodstain. The multiple DNA samples were probably contamination caused by normal handling, as would be expected in a 120 year old museum exhibit. The major proportion of DNA in the bloodstain did indeed match with the remains believed to be those of Nikolai.)

It would have been very, very interesting if Prince Philip's Y-chromosome DNA had been compared to Czar Nikolai's. But the purpose of the DNA comparisons were for identification of the remains, rather than for genealogical or historical reasons, and it would probably only have complicated the identification process to have done the Y-chromosome comparison between Prince Philip and Czar Nikolai, considering the uncertainty involved.

There's always been uncertainty about whether or not Peter III was the father of Paul I, considering the ambiguous marital relationship he had with Catherine. Years later, Catherine apparently privately confided to some of her attendants that her lover, Sergei Saltykov, was Paul's father. But Catherine had a dysfunctional relationship with her son Paul, as well as her husband Peter III. Paul was the hereditary heir to the throne, and Catherine's accession was due to the circumstances of the coup d'etat which resulted in her husband's death. As Peter mentioned in the previous post, it was probably to Catherine's advantage to privately cast some uncertainty over her son's paternity, whether true or not, in order to protect her own position and keep him from possibly challenging her.



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Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #36 
Dynasty №13: House of Nassau

The genesis of this House is somewhat uncertain. It is thought to have begun with Dudo of Laurenburg (11th/12th century). His descendant, Henry II, Count of Nassau, who lived from c. 1180 to c. 1249, had two sons, whose lines lasted to the 20th century.

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The elder brother was Walram II, Count of Nassau (c. 1220 - 1276). The descent begins with a descendant of his who had gained the title of Prince.

I. House of Nassau-Weilburg:
  1. John Ernst, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (1664 - 1719), father of...
  2. Charles August, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (1685 - 1753), father of...
  3. Charles Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (1735 - 1788), father of...
  4. Frederick William, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (1768 - 1816), father of...
  5. William, Duke of Nassau (1792 - 1839), father of...
  6. Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1817 - 1905), father of...
  7. William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1852 - 1912), first cousin of...
II. House of Merenberg [Descended from William, Duke of Nassau, through his son, Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau]:
  1. Count Georg Nikolaus von Merenberg (1871 - 1948).
The dynastic line ended with the death of Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, in 1985. At the time of writing, Countess Clotilde of Nassau-Merenberg, who was born in 1941 as the daughter of II-1, is the last male-line descendant of Dudo of Laurenburg, legitimately at least.

The current Grand Ducal family of Luxembourg continues to use the name Nassau-Weilburg, even if its members mostly belong to the House of Bourbon-Parma.
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The younger brother was Otto I, Count of Nassau (died c. 1289/90). The descent also begins with a descendant who had gained the title of Prince.

I. House of Nassau-Dietz:

  1. William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz (1613 - 1664), father of...
  2. Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz (1657 - 1696), father of...
  3. John William Friso, Prince of Orange (1687 - 1711), father of...
  4. William IV, Prince of Orange (1711 - 1751), father of...
  5. William V, Prince of Orange (1748 - 1806), father of...
  6. William I of the Netherlands (1772 - 1843), father of...
  7. William II of the Netherlands (1792 - 1849), father of...
  8. William III of the Netherlands (1817 - 1890).

This House is more famously known as Orange-Nassau. It went extinct in 1962 with the death of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands.

The current Royal family of the Netherlands continues to use the name Orange-Nassau, even if many of its members belong to the House of Amsberg.
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Fun fact: William III of the Netherlands was succeeded in his role of Grand Duke of Luxembourg by his 17th cousin once removed, Adolphe, who had been the last Duke of Nassau, before his Duchy was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. Ah, agnatic succession...

Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #37 
Dynasty №14: House of Ascania

The progenitor of this House appears to have been Esico of Ballenstedt (died c. 1060), so it is an undeniably old dynasty.

I have begun this descent with the first person to have held the title of Prince.

I. House of Anhalt:
  1. Henry I, Count of Anhalt (c. 1170 - 1252), father of...
  2. Henry II, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben (1215 - 1266), father of...
  3. Otto I, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben (? - 1304), father of...
  4. Otto II, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben (? - 1315), first cousin once removed of...

II. House of Anhalt-Bernburg [Descended from Henry I, Count of Anhalt, through his son, Bernhard I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg]:
  1. Bernhard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (c. 1260 - c. 1323), father of...
  2. Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (? - 1348), father of...
  3. Bernhard IV, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (? - 1354), brother of...
  4. Henry IV, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (? - 1374), father of...
  5. Bernhard V, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (? - 1420), first cousin of...

III. House of Anhalt-Bernburg (Second branch) [Descended from Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, through his son, Otto III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg]:
  1. Bernhard VI, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (? - 1468), fourth cousin once removed of...

IV. House of Anhalt-Köthen [Descended from Henry I, Count of Anhalt, through his son, Siegfried I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst]:
  1. George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (c. 1390 - 1474), father of...
  2. Waldemar VI, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (1450 - 1508), father of...
  3. Wolfgang, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (1492 - 1566), first cousin once removed of...

V. House of Anhalt-Dessau [Descended from George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, through his son, Ernest I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau]:
  1. Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt (1536 - 1586), father of...
  2. John George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1567 - 1618), father of...
  3. John Casimir, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1596 - 1660), father of...
  4. John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1627 - 1693), father of...
  5. Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1676 - 1747), grandfather of...
  6. Graf Wilhelm von Anhalt (1727 - 1760), brother of...
  7. Graf Leopold Ludwig von Anhalt (1729 - 1795), brother of...
  8. Graf Albrecht von Anhalt (1735 - 1802), father of...
  9. Graf August Gustav von Anhalt (1772 - 1823).
Of course, the marriage of William Gustav of Anhalt-Dessau (1699 - 1737) had been morganatic. The real successor of his father was another (initially morganatic) son...
  1. Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1676 - 1747), father of...
  2. Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1700 - 1751), father of...
  3. Leopold III, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1740 - 1817), grandfather of...
  4. Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt (1794 - 1871), father of...
  5. Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt (1831 - 1904), father of...
  6. Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt (1856 - 1918), brother of...
  7. Eduard, Duke of Anhalt (1861 - 1918), father of...
  8. Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt (1901 - 1947), father of...
  9. Friedrich, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt (1938 - 1963), brother of...
  10. Eduard, Prince of Anhalt (b. 1941).
The current Head of the House (about whose paternity exists some doubt) has introduced absolute primogeniture, so that he could be succeeded by his daughters. I will leave this without comment.
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II-A. House of Anhalt-Bernburg:

  1. Bernhard I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (c. 1218 - 1287), father of...
  2. John I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (? - 1291), brother of...
  3. Bernhard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (c. 1260 - c. 1323), same as II-1.

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IV-A. House of Anhalt-Zerbst:

  1. Siegfried I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (c. 1230 - 1298), father of...
  2. Albert I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (? - 1316), father of...
  3. Henry of Anhalt-Zerbst (? - c. 1317), half-brother of...
  4. Albert II, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (? - 1362), father of...
  5. Rudolph of Anhalt-Zerbst (? - 1365), brother of...
  6. John II, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (? - 1382), father of...
  7. Sigismund I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (? - 1405), father of...
  8. Waldemar IV, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (? - c. 1417), brother of...
  9. George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (c. 1390 - 1474), same as IV-1.

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V-A. House of Anhalt-Zerbst (Second branch):

  1. Ernest I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (? - 1516), father of...
  2. John V, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (1504 - 1551), father of...
  3. Karl I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (1534 - 1561), brother of...
  4. Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt (1536 - 1586), same as V-1.

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I may return to the House of Ascania in the future. Stay tuned!

Pallavicini

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Reply with quote  #38 
Greetings.  What an interesting study in this thread

I am wondering about similar heirs for
  • Kurland (Ketteler Dynasty)
  • Pomerania (Griffin Dynasty)
  • Sachsen-Lauenburg (Askanian Dynasty)
  • Mantua & Montferrato (Gonzaga Dynasty)
  • Ostfriesland (Cirksena Dynasty)
  • Austria (Babenberg Dynasty)
  • Geneva (Counts of Geneva)
Also I was always curious who rightful heirs of Sicily's tragic Kings Tancred (Hauteville) and Manfred (Hohenstauffen).

Perhaps all these I ask about are too long-extinct to trace...

Good day!

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Peter

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Reply with quote  #39 
I'm sure Murtagon will welcome your interest, as do I. He may or may not be planning to cover your first seven, but your last two he already has, in the original Heirs of Europe thread. The present-day genealogical heir of Tancred is generally considered to be Charles-Antoine Lamoral de Ligne, and of Manfred Prince Guillaume zu Windisch-Graetz. Details will be found in several different posts concerning these two, spread through the aforementioned thread.
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #40 
Dynasty №15: House of Este

This post is about the elder (and still extant) branch of the House. It is also known as the Younger House of Welf.

For all intents and purposes, this is the oldest German Royal House to still exist. It is descended from the Obertenghi, whose progenitor may have been Adalberto the Margrave in the 10th century, maybe even earlier.

I have begun this descent with the very first Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

I. House of Brunswick-Grubenhagen:
  1. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1204 - 1252), father of...
  2. Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1236 - 1279), father of...
  3. Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1267 - 1322), father of...
  4. Albert of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (c. 1284 - c. 1341), brother of...
  5. Henry II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (bef. 1296 - aft. 1351), father of...
  6. Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1320 - 1398), first cousin once removed of...

II. House of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (Second branch) [Descended from Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, through his son, Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen]:
  1. Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (c. 1383 - 1427), father of...
  2. Henry III, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1416 - 1464), father of...
  3. Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1460 - 1526), first cousin of...

III. House of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (Third branch) [Descended from Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, through his son, Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen]:
  1. Philip I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1476 - 1551), father of...
  2. Ernest III, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1518 - 1567), brother of...
  3. Wolfgang, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1531 - 1595), brother of...
  4. Philip II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1533 - 1596), sixth cousin twice removed of...

IV. House of Brunswick-Harburg [Descended from Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, through his son, Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg]:
  1. Otto II, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (1528 - 1603), grandfather of...
  2. Charles of Brunswick-Harburg (? - 1620), father of...
  3. Alexander, Heer van Terdeck (fl. 1620s).
As IV-2 was a morganaut and as his uncle, John Frederick (1557 - 1619), had renounced his right of inheritance, the successor of Otto II was a younger son...
  1. Otto II, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (1528 - 1603), father of...
  2. William Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (1564 - 1642), second cousin of...

V. House of Brunswick-Lüneburg [Descended from Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, through his son, Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg]:
  1. Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1579 - 1666), father of...
  2. Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1627 - 1704), brother of...
  3. Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1633 - 1714), father of...
  4. Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1662 - 1731), brother of...
  5. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1671 - 1735), first cousin of...

VI. House of Brunswick [Descended from Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, through his son, Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern]:
  1. Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1680 - 1735), father of...
  2. Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1713 - 1780), father of...
  3. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (1735 - 1806), father of...
  4. Georg Wilhelm Christian of Brunswick (1769 - 1811), brother of...
  5. August of Brunswick (1770 - 1822), uncle of...
  6. Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (1804 - 1873), brother of...
  7. William, Duke of Brunswick (1806 - 1884), seventh cousin twice removed of...

VII. House of Hanover [Descended from Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, through his son, William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg]:
  1. Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1845 - 1923), father of...
  2. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick (1887 - 1953), father of...
  3. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), father of...
  4. Prince Ernst August of Hanover (b. 1954).
The Kingdom of Hanover became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. The Duchy of Brunswick was abolished in late 1918. 
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III-A. House of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (Third branch):
  1. Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1419 - 1485), father of...
  2. Ernest of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (? - c. 1485), brother of...
  3. Philip I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1476 - 1551), same as III-1.
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IV-A. House of Brunswick-Lüneburg:
  1. Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1268 - 1318), father of...
  2. Otto the Mild, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1292 - 1344), brother of...
  3. Albert II of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1294 - 1358), brother of...
  4. Henry III of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1296 - 1363), brother of...
  5. Magnus I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1304 - 1369), father of...
  6. Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1324 - 1373), father of...
  7. Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1357 - 1400), brother of...
  8. Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1358/64 - 1434), father of...
  9. Otto IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (? - 1446), brother of...
  10. Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1418 - 1478), grandfather of...
  11. Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1468 - 1532), father of...
  12. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (1495 - 1549), father of...
  13. Otto II, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (1528 - 1603), same as IV-1.
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V-A. House of Brunswick-Dannenberg:
  1. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1497 - 1546), father of...
  2. Francis Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1530 - 1559), brother of...
  3. Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg (1533 - 1598), father of...
  4. Julius Ernst, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg (1571 - 1636), brother of...
  5. Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1579 - 1666), same as V-1.
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VI-A. House of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern:
  1. Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern (1636 - 1687), father of...
  2. Augustus Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern (1677 - 1704), brother of...
  3. Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1680 - 1735), same as VI-1.
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VII-A. House of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Younger branch):
  1. William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1535 - 1592), father of...
  2. Ernest II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1564 - 1611), brother of...
  3. Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1566 - 1633), brother of...
  4. Augustus the Elder, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1568 - 1636), brother of...
  5. Frederick IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1574 - 1648), uncle of...
  6. Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1622 - 1665), brother of...
  7. George William, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1624 - 1705), uncle of...
  8. George I of Great Britain (1660 - 1727), father of...
  9. George II of Great Britain (1683 - 1760), grandfather of...
  10. George III of the United Kingdom (1738 - 1820), father of...
  11. George IV of the United Kingdom (1762 - 1830), brother of...
  12. William IV of the United Kingdom (1765 - 1837), brother of...
  13. Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (1771 - 1851), father of...
  14. George V of Hanover (1819 - 1878), father of...
  15. Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1845 - 1923), same as VII-1.
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Thank you, Pallavicini and Peter! I plan to take an indefinite hiatus from these interesting, but time-consuming, genealogical journeys.

What a coincidence, though! The Pallavicini family is also descended from the Obertenghi...
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