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Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #1 
Having examined more than a dozen individuals, who, for one reason or another, could rightfully call themselves the heir-general of many a past monarch, I now take a look at another once-popular method of succession in Europe: agnatic primogeniture.

This time morganatic marriages will be important. If there was any male issue from such a marriage, it will be noted and this would be a point of divergence. In other words, I am going to show both (or all) lines, morganatic and dynastic.

I intend to begin with those dynasties, which have practically always used some form of agnatic primogeniture. This way, the formation of any cadet branch would be more apparent than in a monarchy which employed MPP (male-preference primogeniture).

Some rather important information:
- men in red are those who succeeded without being descendants of their immediate predecessor (e.g., a brother, a nephew, etc.) - historians generally do not consider this the beginning of the reign of a cadet branch;
- men in purple are those who were born of a morganatic marriage OR had renounced their place in the succession.

As usual, corrections and suggestions are welcome. [smile]

Current List of Dynasties:

1. House of Habsburg
2. House of Habsburg-Lorraine
3. Capetians
4. House of Wittelsbach [2]
5. House of Wettin [2]
6. House of Hohenzollern
7. House of Savoy
8. House of Württemberg
9. House of Baden
10. House of Hesse [2]
Murtagon

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Dynasty №1: House of Habsburg

Male-line descendants of Guntram the Rich (c. 920 - 973), the Habsburgs were originally a comital family in the Holy Roman Empire. They rose to prominence towards the end of the 13th century when one of them became King of Germany and also Duke of Austria. It is with him that this descent begins.

I. House of Habsburg:
  1. Rudolf I of Germany (1218 - 1291), father of...
  2. Albert I of Germany (1255 - 1308), father of...
  3. Frederick the Fair (c. 1289 - 1330), brother of...
  4. Albert II, Duke of Austria (1298 - 1358), father of...
  5. Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339 - 1365), brother of...
  6. Albert III, Duke of Austria (1349 - 1395), father of...
  7. Albert IV, Duke of Austria (1377 - 1404), father of...
  8. Albert II of Germany (1397 - 1439), father of...
  9. Ladislaus the Posthumous (1440 - 1457), second cousin once removed of...

II. House of Habsburg (Leopoldian line) [Descended from Albert II, Duke of Austria, through his son, Leopold III, Duke of Austria]:
  1. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (1415 - 1493), father of...
  2. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459 - 1519), grandfather of...
  3. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500 - 1558), father of...
  4. Philip II of Spain (1527 - 1598), father of...
  5. Philip III of Spain (1578 - 1621), father of...
  6. Philip IV of Spain (1605 - 1665), father of...
  7. Charles II of Spain (1661 - 1700), fourth cousin of...

III. House of Habsburg (Austrian branch) [Descended from Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, through his grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor]
  1. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640 - 1705), father of...
  2. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (1678 - 1711), brother of...
  3. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685 - 1740).

III-3 was the last male of the House of Habsburg. With the death of Empress Maria Theresa, his eldest daughter, in 1780, the House of Habsburg came to an end. However, her own agnatic descendants belong to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

II-A. House of Habsburg (Leopoldian line):
  1. Leopold III, Duke of Austria (1351 - 1386), father of...
  2. William, Duke of Austria (c. 1370 - 1406), brother of...
  3. Leopold IV, Duke of Austria (1371 - 1411), brother of...
  4. Ernest, Duke of Austria (1377 - 1424), father of...
  5. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (1415 - 1493), same as II-1.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

III-A. House of Habsburg (Austrian branch):
  1. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503 - 1564), father of...
  2. Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (1527 - 1576), father of...
  3. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (1552 - 1612), brother of...
  4. Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (1557 - 1619), brother of...
  5. Albert VII, Archduke of Austria (1559 - 1621), first cousin of...

III-B. House of Habsburg (Austrian branch II) [Descended from Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, through his son, Charles II, Archduke of Austria]:
  1. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578 - 1637), father of...
  2. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608 - 1657), father of...
  3. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640 - 1705), same as III-1.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From a genetic point-of-view, it is assumed that members of the House of Habsburg belonged to the Y-chromosomal haplogroup R1b-U152 (L2+ branch). Of course, the only way to be certain would be to examine remains, which I generally object to.

Incidentally, there is a theory that the Habsburgs shared a relatively recent agnatic descent with the House of Lorraine. In any case, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine would be next...
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #3 
Dynasty №2: House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Male-line descendants of the Dukes of Lorraine from the House of Metz, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine was formed with the marriage of the penultimate Duke to the Habsburg heiress, Maria Theresia.

I have decided to start the descent from them, because I have been left with the very strong impression that the Duchy of Lorraine did not quite practice agnatic primogeniture - there were two Duchesses regnant, although the second one had been practically deposed.

I. House of Habsburg-Lorraine:
  1. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1708 - 1765), father of...
  2. Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (1741 - 1790), brother of...
  3. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747 - 1792), father of...
  4. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (1768 - 1835), father of...
  5. Ferdinand I of Austria (1793 - 1875), brother of...
  6. Archduke Franz Karl of Austria (1802 - 1878), father of...
  7. Franz Joseph I of Austria (1830 - 1916), granduncle of...
  8. Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902 - 1962), father of...
  9. Franz, Duke of Hohenberg (1927 - 1977), brother of...
  10. Georg, Duke of Hohenberg (1929 - 2019), father of...
  11. Nikolaus, Duke of Hohenberg (b. 1961).
Of course, the marriage of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863 - 1914) to Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg (1868 - 1914), was morganatic. The former was the heir presumptive of Franz Joseph I, as he was his nephew.

When the Emperor died in 1916, the dynastic succession went differently:
  1. Franz Joseph I of Austria (1830 - 1916), granduncle of...
  2. Charles I of Austria (1887 - 1922), father of...
  3. Otto von Habsburg (1912 - 2011), father of...
  4. Karl von Habsburg (b. 1961).
The dualistic monarchy of Austria-Hungary was abolished in late 1918, with the Emperor-King not actually having abdicated. Hungary was officially a monarchy between 1920 and 1946, but the monarch was represented by a regent during that time.

It is worth mentioning that the agnatic primogeniture that had been used in Austria was not pure. By this I mean that the throne was inherited in a "Semi-Salic" manner - female members of the House of Austria have passive inheritance rights: an Archduchess by birth may only inherit, if there are no more male dynasts left. This was instituted, so that Maria Theresia could succeed her father on most thrones.
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #4 

Dynasty №3: Capetians

Agnatically descended from the Robertians, the Capetians (exact etymology unknown) have been practically synonymous with the House of France since the late 10th century.

I have started this descent with their progenitor who initiated a very clever way to make an elective monarchy into a hereditary one - and succeeded.


I. House of Capet:

  1. Hugh Capet (c. 939 - 996), father of...
  2. Robert II of France (972 - 1031), father of...
  3. Henry I of France (1008 - 1060), father of...
  4. Philip I of France (c. 1052 - 1108), father of...
  5. Louis VI of France (c. 1081 - 1137), father of...
  6. Louis VII of France (1120 - 1180), father of...
  7. Philip II of France (1165 - 1223), father of...
  8. Louis VIII of France (1187 - 1226), father of...
  9. Louis IX of France (1214 - 1270), father of...
  10. Philip III of France (1245 - 1285), father of...
  11. Philip IV of France (1268 - 1314), father of...
  12. Louis X of France (1289 - 1316), father of...
  13. John I of France (1316), nephew of...
  14. Philip V of France (c. 1293 - 1322), brother of...
  15. Charles IV of France (1294 - 1328), first cousin of...


II. House of Valois [Descended from Philip III of France through his son, Charles, Count of Valois]:

  1. Philip VI of France (1293 - 1350), father of...
  2. John II of France (1319 - 1364), father of...
  3. Charles V of France (1338 - 1380), father of...
  4. Charles VI of France (1368 - 1422), father of...
  5. Charles VII of France (1403 - 1461), father of...
  6. Louis XI of France (1423 - 1483), father of...
  7. Charles VIII of France (1470 - 1498), second cousin once removed of...


III. House of Valois-Orléans [Descended from Charles V of France through his son, Louis I, Duke of Orléans]:

  1. Louis XII of France (1462 - 1515), first cousin once removed of...


IV. House of Valois-Angoulême [Descended from Louis I, Duke of Orléans, through his son, John, Count of Angoulême]:

  1. Francis I of France (1494 - 1547), father of...
  2. Henry II of France (1519 - 1559), father of...
  3. Francis II of France (1544 - 1560), brother of...
  4. Charles IX of France (1550 - 1574), brother of...
  5. Henry III of France (1551 - 1589), ninth cousin once removed of...


V. House of Bourbon [Descended from Louis IX of France through his son, Robert, Count of Clermont]:

  1. Henry IV of France (1553 - 1610), father of...
  2. Louis XIII of France (1601 - 1643), father of...
  3. Louis XIV of France (1638 - 1715), great-grandfather of...
  4. Louis XV of France (1710 - 1774), grandfather of...
  5. Louis XVI of France (1754 - 1793), father of...
  6. Louis XVII of France (1785 - 1795), nephew of...
  7. Louis XVIII of France (1755 - 1824), brother of...
  8. Charles X of France (1757 - 1836), father of...
  9. Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême (1775 - 1844), uncle of...
  10. Henri, Count of Chambord (1820 - 1883), fourth cousin once removed of...


VI. House of Bourbon (Spanish branch) [Descended from Louis XIV of France through his grandson, Philip V of Spain]:

  1. Juan, Count of Montizón (1822 - 1887), father of...
  2. Carlos, Duke of Madrid (1848 - 1909), father of...
  3. Jaime, Duke of Madrid (1870 - 1931), nephew of...
  4. Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (1849 - 1936), second cousin once removed of...


VII. House of Bourbon (Spanish branch II) [Descended from Charles IV of Spain through his son, Infante Francisco de Paula, Duke of Cádiz]:

  1. Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886 - 1941), father of...
  2. Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia (1908 - 1975), father of...
  3. Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz (1936 - 1989), father of...
  4. Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou (b. 1974).

It is very important to note that after 1883 it is generally (but not universally) assumed that the Head of the House of Bourbon has not been the same person as the Head of the House of France. I intend to cover the divergent succession in a future post.
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V-A. House of Bourbon:

  1. Robert, Count of Clermont (1256 - 1317), father of...
  2. Louis I, Duke of Bourbon (1279 - 1341), father of...
  3. Peter I, Duke of Bourbon (1311 - 1356), father of...
  4. Louis II, Duke of Bourbon (1337 - 1410), father of...
  5. John I, Duke of Bourbon (1381 - 1434), father of...
  6. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon (1401 - 1456), father of...
  7. John II, Duke of Bourbon (1426 - 1488), brother of...
  8. Charles II, Duke of Bourbon (1434 - 1488), brother of...
  9. Peter II, Duke of Bourbon (1438 - 1503), first cousin once removed of...


V-B. House of Bourbon-Montpensier [Descended from John I, Duke of Bourbon, through his son, Louis I, Count of Montpensier]:

  1. Charles III, Duke of Bourbon (1490 - 1527), fifth cousin of...


V-C. House of Bourbon-Vendôme [Descended from Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, through his son, James I, Count of La Marche]:

  1. Charles, Duke of Vendôme (1489 - 1537), father of...
  2. Antoine of Navarre (1518 - 1562), father of...
  3. Henry IV of France (1553 - 1610), same as V-1.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

V-B-A. House of Bourbon-Montpensier:

  1. Louis I, Count of Montpensier (1405 - 1486), father of...
  2. Gilbert, Count of Montpensier (1443 - 1496), father of...
  3. Louis II, Count of Montpensier (1483 - 1501), brother of...
  4. Charles III, Duke of Bourbon (1490 - 1527), same as V-B-1.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

V-C-A. House of Bourbon-La Marche:

  1. James I, Count of La Marche (1319 - 1362), father of...
  2. Peter II, Count of La Marche (1342 - 1362), brother of...
  3. John I, Count of La Marche (1344 - 1393), father of...
  4. James II, Count of La Marche (1370 - 1438), brother of...
  5. Louis, Count of Vendôme (1376 - 1446), father of...
  6. John VIII, Count of Vendôme (1425 - 1477), father of...
  7. Francis, Count of Vendôme (1470 - 1495), father of...
  8. Charles, Duke of Vendôme (1489 - 1537), same as V-C-1.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VI-A. House of Bourbon (Spanish branch):

  1. Philip V of Spain (1683 - 1746), father of...
  2. Ferdinand VI of Spain (1713 - 1759), half-brother of...
  3. Charles III of Spain (1716 - 1788), father of...
  4. Charles IV of Spain (1748 - 1819), father of...
  5. Ferdinand VII of Spain (1784 - 1833), brother of...
  6. Infante Carlos, Count of Molina (1788 - 1855), father of...
  7. Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin (1818 - 1861), brother of...
  8. Juan, Count of Montizón (1822 - 1887), same as VI-1.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VII-A. House of Bourbon (Spanish branch II):

  1. Infante Francisco de Paula, Duke of Cádiz (1794 - 1865), father of...
  2. Francis, Duke of Cádiz (1822 - 1902), grandfather of...
  3. Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886 - 1941), same as VII-1.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From a genetic point-of-view, the House of Bourbon (and maybe all Capetians too) belongs to the Y-chromosomal haplogroup R1b-U106 (Z381* subclade). Research is ongoing and it appears that the agnatic descendants of King Louis XIII should all be members of that group. Of course, there have been many rumours throughout the centuries of infidelities among the Capetians. For instance, it has been alleged that Charles VII was not the biological son of Charles VI. This has been irrelevant after 1498.
However, Luis Alfonso (current Head of the House) has not been tested yet; neither has anyone from the agnatic descendants of King Carlos IV of Spain. The results could be very interesting and yet damaging to the reputation of one of the oldest and best (in my opinion) dynasties to have ever existed.

Maybe we should just wait and see...

Windemere

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Reply with quote  #5 
Thanks for that interesting survey of the agnatic Hapsburg and Capetian lines.

It's interesting how the senior House of Capet and the cadet House of Valois both ended with the reigns of three brothers in succession to each other (with the exception of the very short reign of infant King John I).

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Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #6 
You are welcome, Windemere!

Yes, that is true. It partially happened even with the grandsons of King Louis XV, although the reasons were quite different in that case.

A quick word about genetics: each man has a Y-chromosome, that is inherited from the biological father. Long story short, it can be compared between two or more men to establish when they had their most common recent ancestor (MRCA) in the male line. In the possible case of the Habsburgs and the very certain case of the Bourbons, it would seem that they were very recently related, agnatically, that is. When I say recent, that could be about 2000 years, maybe more, maybe less.

This reminds me of Karl Wilhelm Naundorf (he claimed to be King Louis XVII). His Y-DNA group seems different enough, but that of a descendant of his raises some questions.

As an aside, I'm afraid I won't have much time this week to update this thread due to my schedule. Sorry about that.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #7 
We discussed this paper here at the time it came out. Though still no geneticist, I remain more of the view that the discovery proves Naundorff wasn't Louis XVII than the other way round. And also continue to feel that even if the identification were proved beyond doubt it would make no difference to my view of the French succession. Did you give the Bourbon-Bussets any consideration, Murtagon? Just curious.
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #8 
Oh, I don't think I had seen that exact thread before! Thanks!

I have a slightly negative opinion of Gerard Lucotte. I'm not a geneticist, but when he examined the remains of the Chevalier Bayard, he assigned one Y-DNA group to him, and had another one in the summary. I thought I had made a mistake, but then I saw a forum discussion which discussed the same thing - basically, it's as if he wanted a specific Y-DNA group for him and was disappointed.

Yes, I also agree that the French succession should not be impacted by that. And no, I treat the Bourbon-Busset family as an illegitimate branch of the House of Bourbon, which simply still exists. 
Murtagon

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Dynasty №4: House of Wittelsbach

Originating from Bavaria with the earliest certain ancestor being from the 11th century, the Wittelsbachs have provided a lot of rulers for that region, as well as for the Palatinate.

This post focuses on the elder line of the House, which not only ruled the Palatinate, but was also in possession of the Electoral dignity from 1356 to 1806 (with some interruption).

Rupert I, Elector Palatine, who lived from 1309 to 1390 was the first member to have that title. He was succeeded by his nephew, with whom this descent begins.


I. House of Palatinate:
  1. Rupert II, Elector Palatine (1325 - 1398), father of...
  2. Rupert, King of Germany (1352 - 1410), father of...
  3. Louis III, Elector Palatine (1378 - 1436), father of...
  4. Louis IV, Elector Palatine (1424 - 1449), father of...
  5. Philip, Elector Palatine (1448 - 1508), father of...
  6. Louis V, Elector Palatine (1478 - 1544), uncle of...
  7. Otto Henry, Elector Palatine (1502 - 1559), third cousin of...

II. House of Löwenstein [Descended from Louis III, Elector Palatine, through his son, Frederick I, Elector Palatine]:
  1. Wolfgang I, Graf zu Löwenstein-Scharfeneck (1527 - 1571), father of...
  2. Graf Heinrich zu Löwenstein-Scharfeneck (1553 - 1581), brother of...
  3. Wolfgang II, Graf zu Löwenstein-Scharfeneck (1555 - 1596), father of...
  4. Georg Ludwig, Graf zu Löwenstein-Scharfeneck (1587 - 1633), second cousin of...

III. House of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg [Descended from Friedrich, Graf zu Löwenstein, through his son, Louis III, Count of Löwenstein]:
  1. Friedrich Ludwig, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1598 - 1657), father of...
  2. Ludwig Ernst, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1627 - 1675), father of...
  3. Graf Joachim Friedrich zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1666 - 1689), brother of...
  4. Eucharius Kasimir, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1668 - 1698), father of...
  5. Graf NN zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1698), first cousin once removed of...

IV. House of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg [Descended from Friedrich Ludwig, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, through his son, Friedrich Eberhard, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg]:
  1. Heinrich Friedrich, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1682 - 1721), father of...
  2. Johann Ludwig Vollrath, Graf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1705 - 1790), father of...
  3. Johann Karl, 1.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1740 - 1816), father of...
  4. Georg Wilhelm Ludwig, 2.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1775 - 1855), father of...
  5. Adolf, 3.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1805 - 1861), first cousin of...

V. House of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (Second branch) [Descended from Johann Karl, 1.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg, through his son, Wilhelm, Prinz zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg]:
  1. Wilhelm, 4.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1817 - 1887), father of...
  2. Ernst, 5.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1854 - 1931), uncle of...
  3. Udo, 6.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1896 - 1980), father of...
  4. Alfred Ernst, 7.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (1924 - 2010), father of...
  5. Ludwig, 8.Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (b. 1951).
Of course, the marriage of Frederick I, Elector Palatine (1425 - 1476) and Clara Tott (c. 1440 - 1520) was morganatic. Because of this, the actual successor of Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, was his fourth cousin...


II (Real). House of Palatinate-Simmern [Descended from Rupert, King of Germany, through his son, Stephen, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken]:
  1. Frederick III, Elector Palatine (1515 - 1576), father of...
  2. Louis VI, Elector Palatine (1539 - 1583), father of...
  3. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine (1574 - 1610), father of...
  4. Frederick V of the Palatinate (1596 - 1632), father of...
  5. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine (1617 - 1680), father of...
  6. Charles II, Elector Palatine (1651 - 1685), half-brother of...
  7. Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz (1658 - 1688), brother of...
  8. Karl Eduard von der Pfalz (1668 - 1690), brother of...
  9. Karl Moritz von der Pfalz (1671 - 1702).
Of course, the marriage between Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine (1617 - 1680) and Marie Luise von Degenfeld (1634 - 1677) was morganatic. Because of this, the actual successor of Charles II, Elector Palatine, was his sixth cousin twice removed...

III (Real). House of Palatinate-Neuburg [Descended from Stephen, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken, through his son, Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken]:
  1. Philip William, Elector Palatine (1615 - 1690), father of...
  2. Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (1658 - 1716), brother of...
  3. Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine (1661 - 1742), second cousin twice removed of...

IV (Real). House of Palatinate-Sulzbach [Descended from Philipp Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg, through his son, Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach]:
  1. Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria (1724 - 1799), fifth cousin of...

V. House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Morganatic line) [Descended from Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, through his son, Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld]:
  1. Christian of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (1752–1817), uncle of...
  2. Christian of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (1782–1859).
Of course, the marriage between Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1722 - 1775) and Maria Johanna Camasse (1734 - 1807) was morganatic. Because of this, the actual successor of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, was his other fifth cousin...


V (Real). House of Bavaria [Descended from Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, through his son, Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken]:
  1. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (1756 - 1825), father of...
  2. Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786 - 1868), grandfather of...
  3. Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845 - 1886), brother of...
  4. Otto of Bavaria (1848 - 1916), first cousin of...

VI. House of Bavaria (Second branch) [Descended from Ludwig I of Bavaria through his son, Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria]:
  1. Ludwig III of Bavaria (1845 - 1921), father of...
  2. Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (1869 - 1955), father of...
  3. Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria (1905 - 1996), father of...
  4. Franz, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1933).
Sadly, Bavaria has had a republican form of government since late 1918.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

II-A. House of Löwenstein:

  1. Frederick I, Elector Palatine (1425 - 1476), father of...
  2. Louis I, Count of Löwenstein (1463 - 1523), father of...
  3. Louis II, Count of Löwenstein (1498 - 1536), brother of...
  4. Friedrich, Count of Löwenstein (1502 - 1541), father of...
  5. Wolfgang I, Graf zu Löwenstein-Scharfeneck (1527 - 1571), same as II-1.

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III (Real)-A. House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken:

  1. Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1424 - 1489), father of...
  2. Kaspar, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1459 - 1527), uncle of...
  3. Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1502 - 1532), father of...
  4. Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1526 - 1569), father of...
  5. Philipp Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1547 - 1614), father of...
  6. Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1578 - 1653), father of...
  7. Philip William, Elector Palatine (1615 - 1690), same as III (Real)-1.
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V-A. House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld:
  1. Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1560 - 1600), father of...
  2. George William, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1591 - 1669), father of...
  3. Charles II Otto, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1625 - 1671), first cousin of...

V-B. House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken [Descended from Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, through his son, Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler]:
  1. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1637 - 1717), father of...
  2. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1674 - 1735), father of...
  3. Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1722 - 1775), father of...
  4. Christian of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (1752–1817), same as V (Morganatic)-1.
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V (Real)-A. House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken:
  1. Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1724 - 1767), father of...
  2. Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken (1746 - 1795), brother of...
  3. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (1756 - 1825), same as V (Real)-1.
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TO BE CONTINUED...
Murtagon

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Dynasty №4: House of Wittelsbach (Part Two)


Having examined the senior branch of the House of Wittelsbach, I now have a look at the junior one which actually ruled Bavaria and was even "Electoral" towards its end.

I made the decision to start with someone who was actually Holy Roman Emperor, a title usually associated with the Habsburgs.

I. House of Bavaria:
  1. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1282 - 1347), father of...
  2. Louis V, Duke of Bavaria (1315 - 1361), father of...
  3. Meinhard III, Count of Gorizia-Tyrol (1344 - 1363), nephew of...
  4. Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria (1319 - 1375), father of...
  5. Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria (1337 - 1413), father of...
  6. Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria (c. 1368 - 1447), first cousin of...

II. House of Bavaria-Landshut [Descended from Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria, through his son, Frederick, Duke of Bavaria]:
  1. Henry XVI, Duke of Bavaria (1386 - 1450), father of...
  2. Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria (1417 - 1479), father of...
  3. George, Duke of Bavaria (1455 - 1503), third cousin of...

III. House of Bavaria-Munich [Descended from Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria, through his son, John II, Duke of Bavaria]:
  1. Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria (1447 - 1508), father of...
  2. William IV, Duke of Bavaria (1493 - 1550), father of...
  3. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria (1528 - 1579), father of...
  4. William V, Duke of Bavaria (1548 - 1626), father of...
  5. Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria (1573 - 1651), father of...
  6. Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria (1636 - 1679), father of...
  7. Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1662 - 1726), father of...
  8. Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor (1697 - 1745), father of...
  9. Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria (1727 - 1777).

III-9 was the last male of the junior Wittelsbachs. He was succeeded by Charles Theodore who finally united the two lines. Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria (1724-1780) appears to have been the one with whose death the branch became completely extinct.
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III-A. House of Bavaria-Munich:

  1. John II, Duke of Bavaria (1341 - 1397), father of...
  2. Ernest, Duke of Bavaria (1373 - 1438), father of...
  3. Albert III, Duke of Bavaria (1401 - 1460), father of...
  4. John IV, Duke of Bavaria (1437 - 1463), brother of...
  5. Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria (1439 - 1501), brother of...
  6. Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria (1447 - 1508), same as III-1.
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To the best of my knowledge, no Wittelsbacher has been genetically tested. It would be very interesting to find out whether or not the members of the dynasty share the same Y-DNA haplogroup with the House of Löwenstein. I suppose it would be R1b, as it is a generally Germanic group.
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #11 
Dynasty №5: House of Wettin

One of the oldest German noble houses still in existence, the House of Wettin appeared at some point in the tenth century. It's mostly associated with Saxony and Thuringia, as well as Meissen - it currently even reigns in the UK and Belgium.

I have begun this descent with the first member of the House who held the Electoral dignity; this is basically the "Ernestine" line of the family.

I. House of Saxony:
  1. Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (1370 - 1428), father of...
  2. Frederick II, Elector of Saxony (1412 - 1464), father of...
  3. Ernest, Elector of Saxony (1441 - 1486), father of...
  4. Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (1463 - 1525), brother of...
  5. John, Elector of Saxony (1468 - 1532), father of...
  6. John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (1503 - 1554), father of...
  7. John Frederick II, Duke of Saxony (1529 - 1595), father of...
  8. John Casimir, Duke of Saxe-Coburg (1564 - 1633), brother of...
  9. John Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (1566 - 1638), first cousin once removed of...

II. House of Saxe-Altenburg [Descended from John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, through his son, Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar]:
  1. Johann Philipp, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1597 - 1639), brother of...
  2. Friedrich Wilhelm II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1603 - 1669), father of...
  3. Friedrich Wilhelm III, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1657 - 1672), second cousin of...

III. House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach [Descended from Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, through his son, Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar]:
  1. John Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1627 - 1683), father of...
  2. William Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1662 - 1728), uncle of...
  3. Ernest Augustus I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1688 - 1748), father of...
  4. Ernest Augustus II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1737 - 1758), father of...
  5. Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1757 - 1828), father of...
  6. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1783 - 1853), father of...
  7. Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1818 - 1901), grandfather of...
  8. William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1876 - 1923), father of...
  9. Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1912–1988), father of...
  10. Michael, Prince of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (b. 1946).
There were many Saxon duchies. I intend to cover some of them in a future post.
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III-A. House of Saxe-Weimar:
  1. Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1570 - 1605), father of...
  2. John Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1594 - 1626), brother of...
  3. William, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1598 - 1662), father of...
  4. John Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1627 - 1683), same as III-1.
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TO BE CONTINUED...
Murtagon

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Dynasty №5: House of Wettin (Part Two)


Frederick II, Elector of Saxony from 1428 to 1464, had two sons who survived into adulthood. I have already shown the Ernestine (elder) line in the previous post. Now, let us see the younger branch of the Wettins, which began with Albert III, Duke of Saxony (1443 - 1500).

Albert's grandson, Maurice (1521 - 1553), managed to obtain the Electoral dignity for his branch in 1547 and it remained there until 1806. He did not have a surviving legitimate son, so he was succeeded by his brother.

I. House of Saxony:
  1. Augustus, Elector of Saxony (1526 - 1586), father of...
  2. Christian I, Elector of Saxony (1560 - 1591), father of...
  3. Christian II, Elector of Saxony (1583 - 1611), brother of...
  4. John George I, Elector of Saxony (1585 - 1656), father of...
  5. John George II, Elector of Saxony (1613 - 1680), father of...
  6. John George III, Elector of Saxony (1647 - 1691), father of...
  7. John George IV, Elector of Saxony (1668 - 1694), brother of...
  8. Augustus II the Strong (1670 - 1733), father of...
  9. Augustus III of Poland (1696 - 1763), father of...
  10. Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony (1722 - 1763), father of...
  11. Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (1750 - 1827), brother of...
  12. Anthony of Saxony (1755 - 1836), brother of...
  13. Maximilian, Hereditary Prince of Saxony (1759 - 1838), father of...
  14. Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (1797 - 1854), brother of...
  15. John of Saxony (1801 - 1873), father of...
  16. Albert of Saxony (1828 - 1902), brother of...
  17. George, King of Saxony (1832 - 1904), father of...
  18. Frederick Augustus III of Saxony (1865 - 1932), father of...
  19. Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony (1893 - 1943), brother of...
  20. Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen (1893 - 1968), father of...
  21. Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen (1926 - 2012), brother of...
  22. Albert, Margrave of Meissen (1934–2012), first cousin once removed of...

II. House of Saxony (Morganatic line) [Descended from Frederick Augustus III of Saxony through his son, Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony]:
  1. Rüdiger, Margrave of Meissen (b. 1953).
Of course, the marriage between Prince Timo of Saxony (1923 - 1983) and Margrit Lucas (1932–1957) was morganatic. As such, it is the official position of the House of Wettin that the Albertine line has been extinct since 2012. In that case, the last dynast was Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1928-2018). Her nephew is also a pretender to the throne.
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II-A. House of Saxony (Junior line):
  1. Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony (1896 - 1971), father of...
  2. Prince Dedo of Saxony (1922 - 2009), uncle of...
  3. Rüdiger, Margrave of Meissen (b. 1953), same as II-1.
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From a genetic point-of-view, it is assumed that all Wettiners belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b-U106 (Z381 > Z156 > Z305 > DF98+ branch). If you look carefully, you will notice that it is very similar to the Bourbon one. Even though I don't like him very much, Gerard Lucotte has also tested Prince Sixte Henri of Bourbon-Parma and concluded that Bourbons are very closely related to the Wettiners (agnatically, obviously). He's probably right.

By the way, the only actual Wettin branch to have been tested was the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. I gather that the two people tested were Simon Coburg (b. 1985) and someone who's related to the Belgian Royal Family. I haven't read Brad Michael Little's book, but I have the strange suspicion that he means the Barons of Eppinghoven, who I'm not sure were actually considered to have been sired by King Leopold I of the Belgians.

In other words, the Houses of Bourbon and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha both belong to the so-called "Kings' Cluster".
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #13 
Dynasty №6: House of Hohenzollern

Founded in the mid-11th century, this House currently has two dynastic branches, a Swabian and a Franconian one. Thing is, the split happened so long ago, that no one knows which son of Frederick I, Burgrave of Nuremberg (bef. 1139 - c. 1200), was older.

One thing is certain, however: the Franconian branch managed to obtain the Electoral dignity in 1415 - and even produced three German Emperors from 1871 to 1918.

I. House of Brandenburg:
  1. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg (1371 - 1440), father of...
  2. John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1406 - 1464), brother of...
  3. Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg (1413 - 1471), brother of...
  4. Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg (1414 - 1486), father of...
  5. John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg (1455 - 1499), father of...
  6. Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg (1484 - 1535), father of...
  7. Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg (1505 - 1571), father of...
  8. John George, Elector of Brandenburg (1525 - 1598), father of...
  9. Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg (1546 - 1608), father of...
  10. John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg (1572 - 1619), father of...
  11. George William, Elector of Brandenburg (1595 - 1640), father of...
  12. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg (1620 - 1688), father of...
  13. Frederick I of Prussia (1657 - 1713), father of...
  14. Frederick William I of Prussia (1688 - 1740), father of...
  15. Frederick the Great (1712 - 1786), uncle of...
  16. Frederick William II of Prussia (1744 - 1797), father of...
  17. Frederick William III of Prussia (1770 - 1840), father of...
  18. Frederick William IV of Prussia (1795 - 1861), brother of...
  19. William I, German Emperor (1797 - 1888), father of...
  20. Frederick III, German Emperor (1831 - 1888), father of...
  21. Wilhelm II, German Emperor (1859 - 1941), father of...
  22. Wilhelm, German Crown Prince (1882 - 1951), father of...
  23. Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia (1907 - 1994), father of...
  24. Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (1939 - 2015), father of...
  25. Philip Kirill Prinz von Preußen (b. 1968).
Naturally, I-24 had renounced his succession rights in 1967, long before the death of his own father. As such, the dynastic succession went in another direction in 1994:
  1. Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia (1907 - 1994), grandfather of...
  2. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (b. 1976).
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Genetically, it is possible that the Hohezollerns belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup I2-Y7219 (downstream of L701 and P78). I am not supplying a link this time, because no serious research has been carried out (that I know of). 

As for the other Hohenzollern line(s) - wait and see...
Murtagon

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Reply with quote  #14 
Dynasty №7: House of Savoy

Established at the beginning of the 11th century by Humbert I, Count of Savoy, this dynasty gained prominence in the early 15th century, when the person with whom I've started this descent gained the title of Duke (and de facto sovereignty from the Holy Roman Empire). A further success was the acquisition of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1720 and then the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

I. House of Savoy:
  1. Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (1383 - 1451), father of...
  2. Louis, Duke of Savoy (1413 - 1465), father of...
  3. Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy (1435 - 1472), father of...
  4. Philibert I, Duke of Savoy (1465 - 1482), brother of...
  5. Charles I, Duke of Savoy (1468 - 1490), father of...
  6. Charles II, Duke of Savoy (1489 - 1496), grandnephew of...
  7. Philip II, Duke of Savoy (1438 - 1497), father of...
  8. Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (1480 - 1504), half-brother of...
  9. Charles III, Duke of Savoy (1486 - 1553), father of...
  10. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528 - 1580), father of...
  11. Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (1562 - 1630), father of...
  12. Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (1587 - 1637), father of...
  13. Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy (1632 - 1638), brother of...
  14. Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy (1634 - 1675), father of...
  15. Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia (1666 - 1732), father of...
  16. Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia (1701 - 1773), father of...
  17. Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia (1726 - 1796), father of...
  18. Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia (1751 - 1819), brother of...
  19. Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia (1759 - 1824), brother of...
  20. Charles Felix of Sardinia (1765 - 1831), fifth cousin once removed of...

II. House of Savoy-Carignano [Descended from Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, through his son, Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano]:
  1. Charles Albert of Sardinia (1798 - 1849), father of...
  2. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy (1820 - 1878), father of...
  3. Umberto I of Italy (1844 - 1900), father of...
  4. Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1869 - 1947), father of...
  5. Umberto II of Italy (1904 - 1983), father of...
  6. Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples (b. 1937).
II-6 married Marina Ricolfi-Doria in 1971. As this was a morganatic marriage without royal approval, it is generally assumed that the Prince of Naples has forfeited the Savoyard rights for himself and his descendants. Because of this, many take the successor of King Umberto II as his second cousin once removed...

III. House of Savoy-Aosta [Descended from Victor Emmanuel II of Italy through his son, Amadeo I of Spain]:
  1. Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (b. 1943).
It is important to note that the Duchy of Savoy has been part of France since 1861.
Also, the Kingdom of Italy was abolished in 1946 after a possibly fraudulent referendum.
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III-A. House of Savoy-Aosta:
  1. Amadeo I of Spain (1845 - 1890), father of...
  2. Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta (1869 - 1931), father of...
  3. Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (1898 - 1942), brother of...
  4. Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (1900 - 1948), father of...
  5. Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (b. 1943), same as III-1.
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Unlike the very high number of living Capetians/Bourbons, the male Savoyards are very few. The Prince of Naples has a son who is not expected to father any more children than his two daughters. The Duke of Aosta has a son who has two sons of his own. There is also the branch of Savoy-Villafranca-Soissons, but it's morganatic and slightly obscure.
As such, the extinction of the House of Savoy is sadly very possible.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #15 
The two sons of Prince Aimone are respectively ten and eight years old. There doesn't seem any reason to give up hope of the dynasty's continuance yet. If they get to forty and thirty-eight without sons of their own one might begin to worry. Harking back to #13, eleven generations of unbroken father-to-son succession is notable, and doesn't often seem to get noted. In #12 above that, the Bourbon-Wettin relationship seems outlandish at first glance, but then one remembers that both dynasties have Frankish origins, and probably (though not with documented certainty) sprang from high Frankish nobility at that. So not so odd after all.
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