Monarchy Forum
Sign up Latest Topics

Note: This topic is locked. No new replies will be accepted.

  Author   Comment  

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #1 

Fall Weiβ (Case White) was the Nazi plan for the invasion of Poland, which on 1st September 1939 moved from drawing board to reality, launching a six-year conflict that eventually would engulf the entire globe. Millions died, millions more were displaced, nations beggared themselves, irreplaceable treasures were destroyed, and half Europe ended up in chains. It was a dark and dreadful day, whatever the weather may have been like. 

Also swept away by the conflict were four more of Europe’s monarchies: Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and Yugoslavia. The Bulgarian, Romanian and Yugoslav peoples exchanged their monarchies for Communist dictatorships, while the more fortunate Italians passed from monarchy, following a somewhat questionable referendum, to a democratic if sometimes rather ramshackle republic. Of the ten surviving monarchies, those involved in the war were mainly strengthened if anything by its events, the sovereigns providing a unifying focus for their people, whether from exile, at home sharing the privations and dangers of occupation or, in the case of George VI, in London facing the Blitz and the threat of invasion alongside his subjects.

Turning to the relationships of the monarchs reigning on that fateful day, three charts follow, covering all the relationships of the fourteen sovereigns between them. Keys will appear either with or after the charts, as size allows. Two tables of combined statistics come next, then as there is not too much to say about posterities a further two tables comparing the ancestries of the 1939 sovereigns with those of today, all of whom are descendants of at least one of the 1939 set. What the tables prove I’m not quite sure, but having done them I offer them, along with the charts themselves.

For a guide to how to read the charts, click here.


Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #2 
I: Relationships of the Protestant and Orthodox sovereigns of Europe on the day of the German invasion of Poland, 1st September 1939
Reigning monarchWilhelminaHaakon VIIGustaf VChristian XBoris IIICarol IIPeter IIGeorge IIGeorge VI
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands2c1r WIN1c1r WDN2c1r WIN3c1r FNW2c2r PIR2c3r PIR2c2r PIR3c1r FIIW
Haakon VII of Norway2c1r WIN1c1r OISNB F8D5c FAIIB
3c1r FW3P3c2r FW3P1c1r CIXD1c1r CIXD
Gustaf V of Sweden1c1r WDN1c1r OISN1c1r OISN2c2r FNW4c1r KIIMS
4c1r FIIW
4c2r KIIMS
4c2r FIIW
3c1r FSA3c1r KNW
Christian X of Denmark2c1r WINB F8D1c1r OISN5c FAIIB
3c1r FW3P3c2r FW3P1c1r CIXD1c1r CIXD
Boris III of Bulgaria3c1r FNW5c FAIIB
2c2r FNW5c FAIIB
2c1r FPSC3c2r FSC*3c1r FSC3c1r FSC
Carol II of Romania2c2r PIR3c1r FW3P4c1r KIIMS
4c1r FIIW
3c1r FW3P2c1r FPSCU PME2c VGB2c VGB
Peter II of Yugoslavia2c3r PIR3c2r FW3P4c2r KIIMS
4c2r FIIW
3c2r FW3P3c2r FSC*N PME2c1r VGB2c1r VGB
George II of Greece2c2r PIR1c1r CIXD3c1r FSA1c1r CIXD3c1r FSC2c VGB2c1r VGB2c CIXD
2c VGB
George VI of Great Britain3c1r FIIW1c1r CIXD3c1r KNW1c1r CIXD3c1r FSC2c VGB2c1r VGB2c CIXD
2c VGB
*See chart III, the footnote there applies to this relationship also

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #3 
Christian IX of Denmark (5)Frederik VIII of Denmark (1)Ferdinand Albrecht II, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (2)
Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (3)Franz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (2)Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (2)
Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1)Friedrich, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1)Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (3)
Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia (4)Karl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (2)Karl Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (1)
Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (2)Paul I Petrovitch of Russia (3)Princess Marie of Edinburgh (1)
Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (5)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (1)Willem I of the Netherlands (2)
Most connections formed:CIXD, VGB (5)FW3P (4)FIIW, FSC, PIR (3)FAIIB, FJSC, FNW, KIIMS, OISN, WIN (2)Others (1)

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #4 
II: Relationships between the Catholic sovereigns of Europe on the day of the German invasion of Poland, 1st September 1939
Reigning monarchVE IIICharlotteLouis IILéopold IIIF Joseph II
Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy4c C3S3c1r KLB3c MIB3c MIB
Charlotte of Luxembourg4c C3S4c1r LIXHD1c1r MIP1c1r MIP
Louis II of Monaco3c1r KLB4c1r LIXHD2c1r KBa3c1r KLB
Léopold III of Belgium3c MIB1c1r MIP2c1r KBa2c MIP
Franz Joseph II of Liechtenstein3c MIB1c1r MIP3c1r KLB2c MIP
Carlos III of Spain (1)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (1)Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (2)
Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1)Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (2)Miguel I of Portugal (3)
Most connections formed:MIP (3)KLB, MIB (2)Others (1)

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #5 
III: Relationships between the Protestant and Orthodox and the Catholic sovereigns of Europe on the day of the German invasion of Poland, 1st September 1939
Reigning monarchV Emanuele III
of Italy
of Luxembourg
Louis II
of Monaco
Léopold III
of Belgium
F Joseph II
of Liechtenstein
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands4c1r LIXHD2c WDN4c LIXHD4c1r LIXHD4c1r LIXHD
Haakon VII of Norway3c1r MIB2c1r WHC4c1r LIXHD3c1r MIB3c1r MIB
Gustaf V of Sweden3c MIB1c1r WDN5c C3ZB
5c CDB
5c L8HD
3c MIB3c MIB
Christian X of Denmark3c1r MIB2c1r WHC4c1r LIXHD3c1r MIB3c1r MIB
Boris III of Bulgaria3c1r FI2S
3c1r LIIE
3c1r CIVS
3c1r FNW
6c1r JWFO2c1r LPIF3c1r FI2S
Carol II of Romania3c2r LIIE2c2r JVIP2c1r KBa2c KAH3c1r FIA
3c1r JVIP
Peter II of Yugoslavia*4c1r KLB4c2r KIIMS3c2r KLB3c2r FSC4c1r KLB
George II of Greece5c LIXHD3c WHC4c1r LIXHD3c1r FSC5c LIXHD
George VI of Great Britain6c1r JWFO
6c1r LRBW
3c WHC6c JWFO3c1r FSC6c1r JWFO
*Throughout these charts the relationships of Peter II are calculated ignoring his putative maternal grandfather Ferdinand I of Romania, since his actual maternal grandfather was Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia. All but one (to Vittorio Emanuele III) of his relationships shown in this particular chart would be closer were it not for this exclusion. As Genealogics take a different view of the paternity of King Peter's mother, these theoretical closer relationships appear in the links before the ones given here, which I believe to be the actual nearest.

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #6 
Christian III, CP of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1)Claude de Beauharnais (1)Carlos IV of Spain (1)
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (2)Franz I of Austria (1)Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (1)
Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (3)João VI of Portugal (2)Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (4)
Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern (1)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (1)Karl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1)
Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (3)Ludwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1)Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (2)
Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (9)Louis-Philippe I of France (1)Ludwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1)
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (9)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (2)Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Cassel (4)
Most connections formed:LIXHD, MIB (9)JWFO, WHC (4)FSC, KLB (3)FI2S, JVIP, LIIE, WDN (2)Others (1)

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #7 
Combined statistics 1939 part one: individuals forming three or more connections
MIBMaximilian I Joseph of Bavaria11-29WHCLandgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Cassel  4--4
LIXHDLudwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt10-19FIIWFriedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg  33--
FSCFranz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld  63-3FNWFriedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg  32-1
CIXDChristian IX of Denmark  55--KIIMSKarl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz  32-1
KLBKarl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden  5-23MIPMiguel I of Portugal  3-3-
VGBVictoria of Great Britain and Ireland  55--PIRPaul I Petrovitch of Russia  33--
FW3PFriedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia  44--WDNWilhelm, Duke of Nassau  31-2
JWFOJan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange  4--4      

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #8 
Combined statistics 1939 part two: individuals forming under three connections
FAIIBFerdinand Albrecht II, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel  22--CIVSCarlos IV of Spain  1--1
FI2SFerdinando I of the Two Sicilies  2--2F8DFrederik VIII of Denmark  11--
FJSCFranz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld  22--FIAFranz I of Austria  1--1
JVIPJoão VI of Portugal  2--2FPSCPrince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha  11--
KBaKarl, Grand Duke of Baden  2-11FSAFriedrich, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg  11--
LIIELeopold II, Holy Roman Emperor  2--2KAHKarl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern  1--1
OISNOscar I of Sweden and Norway  22--KNWKarl Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg  11--
WINWillem I of the Netherlands  22--L8HDLudwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt  1--1
C3SCarlos III of Spain  1-1-LPIFLouis-Philippe I of France  1--1
C3ZBChristian III, C Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld  1--1LRBWLudwig Rudolf, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel  1--1
CDBClaude de Beauharnais  1--1PMEPrincess Marie of Edinburgh  11--

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #9 

A note on posterities

All of these sovereigns apart from George II of Greece had at least one child, and where thrones survive a child or further descendant sits on them. Where they do not, a child or further descendant claims them. I will mention that Gustaf V of Sweden and Léopold III of Belgium are both ancestors of two current sovereigns.

As there really is not much more than that to say on posterities, I cast my mind back to when I was preparing the 1914 charts for the sovereigns of the German Realms. Only one of them was an ancestor of any current sovereign, so I created a table showing the descent of current sovereigns from the top ten ancestors of those of the German Realms. The tables that follow are slightly different to that, though. The first one shows the spread of descents from their top nine ancestors (those forming four or more connections) among the 1939 sovereigns. The second shows the spread of descent from those same ancestors among current sovereigns. The idea is to show the increase arising from the marriages of these sovereigns and subsequent generations (which in some cases is nil).

As there are only ten sovereigns today, as opposed to the fourteen of 1939, the total number of sovereigns descended from each ancestor is not particularly meaningful; in fact, to reduce depth and ensure it could all be seen without scrolling I removed the totals row in the first table. The number expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible number, 10 today and 14 in 1939, does however allow meaningful comparison, and is shown along with the number itself in the second table and on its own in the first. Both number and percentage signify when looking at how many of the ancestors individual sovereigns descend from; the percentage this time is of the maximum possible number of ancestors that can be traced to, nine. As an aside, the bottom figures in the totals and percentages columns in the second table are calculated in a different way. The latter is the total number of connections as a percentage of the maximum possible number (126 for 1939 and 90 for today), and the former is the average of the figures to its left. They should of course be the same, which they are, and which serves as a check.

I doubt whether any of that is very clear, but perhaps it will be looking at the tables, which follow in the next two posts. Originally both tables had the ancestor codes at the top and the names at the sides linked to Wikipedia articles, so that if anyone couldn't remember who a code stands for or where someone was sovereign of they could just hover over the name/code and find out. However the first table was fractionally too large to be posted, so I had to remove the links from the codes for that one. This seemed the sensible choice, as the same codes are in the table in the next post and there (that table being smaller) they are linked. So it is only necessary to go that far to get an answer.


Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #10 
1939 sovereigns: descents from the top nine ancestors
George II    778
Haakon VII     667
Christian X     667
Carol II     667
Peter II     667
Léopold III      556
George VI      556
VE III       444
FJ II       444
Charlotte        333
Louis II        333
Wilhelmina         222
Gustaf V         222
Boris III         222

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #11 
2013 sovereigns: descents from the top nine 1939 ancestors
M II  9100
Harald V   889
Henri   889
Philippe   889
C XVI G    778
Elizabeth II      556
JC I      556
H-A II       444
Albert II        333
W-A        333
Total  6  9  7  5  7  5  6  10  56067

Avatar / Picture

Posts: 11,993
Reply with quote  #12 
Again, Thank you!
"In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas"

I am NOT an authorized representative of my Government.

Learn more about the Dominion of British West Florida at

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #13 
You're welcome, Bo. The idea is to post a thread a day from now on until 1789 is done. The pace will then slow as I have done no revision work yet on earlier charts, while to 1789 the charts are mostly ready, all I need to do is give them a final once-over, write the accompanying verbiage (which, it might surprise people to learn, is my least favourite part of the process; it is a long time since I wrote so much and at such length and I am well out of practice, but I feel the charts need some sort of accompanying narrative so am doing it anyway) and post them. The last is a lot of work in itself, my original plan to post multiple threads all on one day was, I now recognise, insane, even if everything had been ready as I had planned. I may not post tomorrow, when I am rather busy, but if so will catch up the next day.

Posts: 7,547
Reply with quote  #14 

Anyone wishing to reply further to this topic is invited to do so in the discussion thread at the top of the page. This thread has been locked, for reasons explained there.

Previous Topic | Next Topic

Quick Navigation:

Easily create a Forum Website with Website Toolbox.