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royalcello

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Reply with quote  #1 
As a follow-up to my comment on the Crown Princess Victoria thread about relationships between reigning European monarchs eventually growing more distant as unequal marriages continue to be the norm, here is a little table I've prepared (yes, I've had too much time on my hands this morning!). 

I'm pretty sure these are the closest relationships in each case, though Peter might want to double-check me on that.  I've omitted the two principalities since those relationships are more distant.  c=cousin, r=removed, so "4c1r" means "fourth cousin once removed."  The table should be read, "(name at left) is the (relationship) of (name on top)," e.g., Grand Duke Henri is the nephew of King Albert II.  The most recent common ancestor, from whom the relationship is calculated, is given in parentheses; keys to those abbreviations are below.


Elizabeth II
Margrethe II
Carl XVI Gustaf
Juan Carlos I
Beatrix
Harald V
Albert II
Henri
Elizabeth II

3c (QV or C9)
3c (QV)
3c (QV)
5c1r (FFMS)
2c (E7)
3c (C9)
3c1r (C9)
Margrethe II
3c (QV or C9)

1c (G6A)
3c (QV)
4c (WN)
2c (F8)
2c (F8)
2c1r (F8)
Carl XVI Gustaf
3c (QV)
1c (G6A)

3c (QV)
3c (GVWP)
2c1r (O2)
2c1r (O2)
3c (O2)
Juan Carlos I
3c (QV)
3c (QV)
3c (QV)

4c (FLMS)
3c (QV)
4c (LP)4c1r (LP)
Beatrix
5c1r (FFMS)
4c (WN)
3c (GVWP)
4c (FLMS)

3c1r (WN)
3c1r (WN)
4c (WN)
Harald V
2c (E7)
2c (F8)
2c1r (O2)
3c (QV)
3c1r (WN)

1c (CV)
1c1r (CV)
Albert II
3c (C9)
2c (F8)
2c1r (O2)
4c (LP)
3c1r (WN)
1c (CV)

uncle (L3)
Henri
3c1r (C9)
2c1r (F8)
3c (O2)
4c1r (LP)
4c (WN)
1c1r (CV)
nephew (L3)


C9=King Christian IX of Denmark (1818-1906) and Louise of Hesse-Cassel
CV=Prince Carl of Sweden, Duke of Vastergotland (1861-1951) (son of O2) and Ingeborg of Denmark (daughter of F8)
E7=King Edward VII of Great Britain (1841-1910) (son of QV) and Alexandra of Denmark (daughter of C9)
F8=King Frederik VIII of Denmark (1843-1912) (son of C9) and Louise of Sweden
FFMS=Grand Duke Franz Ferdinand of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1756-1837) and Luise of Saxe-Gotha
FLMS=Friedrich Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1778-1819) (son of FFMS) (Juan Carlos and Beatrix descend from different wives of his)
FSC=Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1750-1806) and Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorff
G6A=King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (1882-1973) and Margaret of Great Britain
GVWP=Georg Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1831-1893) and Helene of Nassau (daughter of WN)
L3=King Leopold III of Belgium (1901-1983) and Astrid of Sweden (daughter of CV)
LP=King Louis Philippe of the French (1773-1850) and Marie Amelie of the Two Sicilies
O2=King Oscar II of Sweden (1829-1907) and Sophia of Nassau (daughter of WN)
QV=Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1819-1901) and Albert of Saxe-Coburg
WN=Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (1792-1839) and Pauline of Württemberg


There, I hope that's clear. 

Peter

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Reply with quote  #2 
It was Friedrich Franz I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin that was your FFMS, not Franz Ferdinand (don't think they had one of those). I've only checked the Queen's relationships so far, which all seem correct to me. I'm sure the others will be too.

The Prince of Liechtenstein is as close to some reigning monarchs as a few of these relationships, for example he is a third cousin of Albert II through their mutual descent from the sometime Miguel I of Portugal. He is also a third cousin of Grand Duke Henri in the same way. Not once removed, well that too but Grand Duke Henri is, like the Prince and Albert II, a great-great-grandson of Miguel I, in his case through both his paternal grandfather and grandmother, as well as a great-great-great-grandson through his mother, Albert's sister.

The Prince's relationship to some of the others would be fairly remote, admittedly, though one could in all cases be traced. So they could for Albert II of Monaco, but those would all be quite remote.
royalcello

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Reply with quote  #3 
Quote:
Originally Posted by Peter
It was Friedrich Franz I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin that was your FFMS, not Franz Ferdinand (don't think they had one of those).


Oops.  Not sure how that happened, since I have it correct on the handwritten family trees I was using.  Thanks.

OK, the key should read:

FFMS=Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1756-1837) and Luise of Saxe-Gotha

Peter

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Reply with quote  #4 

Curious little point: Juan Carlos I is actually more closely related to all the Protestant sovereigns in the list than he is to either of the other Catholic ones! That's part of the value of a table like this, you see things that otherwise wouldn't have occurred to you.

royalcello

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Reply with quote  #5 
Yes, that's interesting, especially given that Juan Carlos and Henri are both Bourbons!
BaronVonServers

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Reply with quote  #6 
Thanks for the chart!'
Do you have/plan to make on for other times?
(I'd love to see one for different times in Elizabeth I's reign, as well as on for right before the World Wars!).


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royalcello

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Reply with quote  #7 
You're welcome.  I was actually thinking about adding one for 1914.  We'll see. 

There were, of course, more reigning monarchs then.  But many (though not all) of the relationships would be simpler and more obvious.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #8 
Yes. For example George V was the first cousin of the Russian and German Emperors and the Kings of Denmark, Norway and Greece. Nice and simple. The Kings of Romania and Bulgaria would be easy (3rd cousin and 2nd cousin once removed respectively). The King of the Belgians would also be a 2nd cousin once removed. The Queen of the Netherlands and the King of Sweden I'd have to think about, probably the closest relationship would be through Frederick, Prince of Wales.

Now work out George V's relationship to the Emperor of Austria and the Kings of Italy and Spain. There undoubtedly was one, but you'd have to go back a way. On the other hand, easiest of all would be the Kings of Montenegro and Serbia: no traceable relationship whatsoever.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #9 

PS I guess I forgot the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. Again I'd have to think about her, but she was descended from George II, which might be the closest. So was Alfonso XIII actually, so he might not be too hard. Franz Josef and Victor Emmanuel III would take some digging, though. My instinct is that you'd have to go back through Maria Theresa, whose mother's sister was an ancestress of George V. Of course, all this is just for George V, then you'd have to go through it all again for everybody else. Over to you, royalcello, if you want to do it!

royalcello

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Reply with quote  #10 
OK, here's 1914.  Again, I've omitted the principalities, as well as Montenegro and Serbia, due to their rulers' lack of genealogical connections at the time to the others (other than King Nikola I of Montenegro being the father-in-law--not a blood relation--of Peter I of Serbia and Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy). 

For Romania, which saw a change of sovereign in 1914, it would have been easier to go with Ferdinand I, but I'd gotten too far with this order to start over when I realized what Peter meant by "easy."  (Ferdinand's mother was Antonia of Portugal, making him George V's third cousin through "FSC.")  Obviously the monarchs are listed by seniority, and switching to Ferdinand instead of Carol would have messed the whole thing up.  Besides, the idea is the eve of World War I, and Carol I was still king when the war began.   Plus using Carol eliminates the potential confusion of having two King Ferdinands.



Franz Joseph I
Carol I
Alfonso XIII
Ferdinand I
Wilhelm II
Wilhelmina
Nicholas II
Vittorio Emanuele III
Haakon VII
Gustaf V
Albert I
George V
Marie Adelaide
Christian X
Constantine I
Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary
--
2c (KLB)
2c1r (L2HRE)
2c (F1-2S)
5c1r (LRBW)
5c (JWF)
5c1r (LRBW)
1c2r (M1B)
1c3r (M1B)
1c2r (M1B)
2c1r (KLB)
5c1r (LRBW)
3c1r (C3S)
1c3r (M1B)5c1r (LRBW)
Carol I of Romania
2c (KLB)
--
5c1r (JWF)
8c1r (WPZ)
3c1r (L9HD)
5c (JWF)
2c1r (KLB)
2c2r (KLB)
4c2r (CdB)
4c1r (CdB)
uncle (KAH)
6c (K1HK)
5c1r (JWF)
4c2r (CdB)
5c1r (JWF)
Alfonso XIII of Spain
2c1r (L2HRE)
5c1r (JWF)
--
2c2r (F1-2s)
5c1r (G2GB)
4c1r (W4)
5c1r (G2GB)
3c (L2HRE)
5c1r (G2GB)
2c1r (FWN)
3c1r (F1-2S)
5c1r (G2GB)
3c (FWN)
5c1r (G2GB)
3c (LW)
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria
2c (F1-2S)
8c1r (WPZ)2c2r (F1-2S)
--
2c1r (FSC)
4c1r (FA2)
4c1r (FA2)
3c1r (MT-HRE)
4c1r (FA2)
4c2r (FA2)
1c1r (LP)
2c1r (FSC)
3c1r (C3S)
4c1r (FA2)
4c1r (FA2)
Wilhelm II of Germany
5c1r (LRBW)
3c1r (L9HD)
5c1r (G2GB)2c1r (FSC)
--
2c1r (P1R)
2c1r (FW3)
4c1r (L9HD)
2c1r (FW3)
4c (FEW)
2c1r (FSC)
1c (QV)5c1r (G2GB)
2c1r (FW3)
2c1r (FW3) and brother-in-law
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
5c (JWF)
5c (JWF)
4c1r (W4)
4c1r (FA2)
2c1r (P1R)
--
2c1r (P1R)
4c2r (JWF)2c1r (W1N)
1c1r (WN)
5c1r (JWF)4c2r (FLW)
2c (WN)
2c1r (W1N)
4c1r (W4)
Nicholas II of Russia
5c1r (LRBW)
2c1r (KLB)
5c1r (G2GB)
4c1r (FA2)
2c1r (FW3)
2c1r (P1R)
--
3c1r (KLB)1c (C9)
4c (FEW)
3c (KLB)
1c (C9)
2c1r (WHK)
1c (C9)
1c (C9)
Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy
1c2r (M1B)
2c2r (KLB)
3c (L2HRE)
3c1r (MT-HRE)
4c1r (L9HD)
4c2r (JWF)
3c1r (KLB)
--
6c1r (JWF)3c (M1B)
3c1r (KLB)
6c (LRBW)
4c (C3S)
6c1r (JWF)6c (LRBW)
Haakon VII of Norway
1c3r (M1B)4c2r (CdB)
5c1r (G2GB)
4c1r (FA2)
2c1r (FW3)
2c1r (W1N)
1c (C9)
6c1r (JWF)
--
1c1r (O1)
4c1r (FA2)
1c (C9) and brother-in-law
2c1r (WHK)brother (F8)
1c (C9)
Gustaf V of Sweden
1c2r (M1B)
4c1r (CdB)
2c1r (FWN)
4c2r (FA2)
4c (FEW)
1c1r (WN)
4c (FEW)
3c (M1B)
1c1r (O1)
--
4c2r (FA2)
4c1r (FLW)
1c1r (WN)
1c1r (O1)
3c1r (CCNW)
Albert I of Belgium
2c1r (KLB)
nephew (KAH)
3c1r (F1-2S)
1c1r (LP)
2c1r (FSC)
5c1r (JWF)
3c (KLB)
3c1r (KLB)
4c1r (FA2)
4c2r (FA2)--
2c1r (FSC)
4c (C3S)
4c1r (FA2)
4c1r (FA2)
George V of the United Kingdom
5c1r (LRBW)
6c (K1HK)
5c1r (G2GB)
2c1r (FSC)
1c (QV)
4c2r (FLW)
1c (C9)
6c (LRBW)
1c (C9) and brother-in-law
4c1r (FLW)
2c1r (FSC)
--
2c1r (WHK)1c (C9)
1c (C9)
Marie Adelaide of Luxembourg
3c1r (C3S)
5c1r (JWF)
3c (FWN)
3c1r (C3S)
5c1r (G2GB)
2c (WN)
2c1r (WHK)4c (C3S)
2c1r (WHK)1c1r (WN)
4c (C3S)
2c1r (WHK)--
2c1r (WHK)2c1r (WHK)
Christian X of Denmark
1c3r (M1B)4c2r (CdB)
5c1r (G2GB)
4c1r (FA2)
2c1r (FW3)
2c1r (W1N)
1c (C9)
6c1r (JWF)brother (F8)
1c1r (O1)
4c1r (FA2)
1c (C9)
2c1r (WHK)--
1c (C9)
Constantine I of Greece
5c1r (LRBW)
5c1r (JWF)
3c (LW)
4c1r (FA2)
2c1r (FW3) and brother-in-law
4c1r (W4)
1c (C9)
6c (LRBW)
1c (C9)
3c1r (CCNW)
4c1r (FA2)
1c (C9)
2c1r (WHK)1c (C9)
--

Common ancestors:

C3S=King Carlos III of Spain (1716-1788) and Maria Amalia of Saxony

C9=King Christian IX of Denmark (1818-1906) and Louise of Hesse-Cassel

CCNW=Carl Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (1735-1788) and Caroline of Orange (daughter of W4)

CdB=Claude de Beauharnais (1680-1738, Seigneur de Beaumont, and Renée Hardouineau

F1 2S=King Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (1751-1825) (son of C3S) and Maria Carolina of Austria (daughter of MT HRE)

F8=King Frederik VIII of Denmark (1843-1912) (son of C9) and Louise of Sweden

FA2=Ferdinand Albrecht II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1680-1735) and Antonia Amalia of Brunswick (daughter of LRBW)

FSC=Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1750-1806) and Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorff

FEW=Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1732-1797) and Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt

FLW=Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales (1707-1751) (son of G2GB) and Augusta of Brunswick

FW3=King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia (1770-1840) and Luise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

FWN=Friedrich Wilhelm of Nassau (1768-1816) (son of CCNW) and Louise von Kirchberg

G2GB=King George II of Great Britain (1683-1760) and Caroline of Ansbach

JWF=Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (1686-1711) and Marie Louisa of Hesse-Kassel (daughter of K1HK)

K1HK=Karl I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1654-1730) and Maria Amalia of Courland

KAH=Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern (1811-1885) and Josephine of Baden

KLB=Karl Ludwig of Baden (1755-1801) and Amalia of Hesse (daughter of L9HD)

L2HRE=Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792) and Maria Luisa of Spain (daughter of C3S)

L9HD=Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1719-1790) and Caroline of Zweibrücken

LP=King Louis Philippe of the French (1773-1850) and Marie Amelie of the Two Sicilies (daughter of F 2S)

LRBW=Ludwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Blankenburg & Wölfenbüttel (1671-1735) and Christine Louise of Öttingen

LW=Ludwig of Wurttemberg (1756-1817) (son of FEW) and Henrietta of Nassau (1780 1857) (daughter of CCNW)

M1B=King Maximilian I of Bavaria (1756-1825) and Augusta of Hesse (Scandinavian descendants) or Caroline of Baden (daughter of KLB) (Austrian and Italian descendants)

MT HRE=Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780) (granddaughter of LRBW) and Emperor Franz I

O1=King Oscar I of Sweden (1799-1859) and Josephine of Leuchtenberg (granddaughter of M1B)

P1R=Emperor Paul I of Russia (1754-1801) and Sophia of Württemberg (daughter of FEW)

QV=Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1819-1901) and Albert of Saxe-Coburg

W1N=King Willem I of the Netherlands (1772-1842) and Wilhelmina of Prussia (1774 1837) (sister of FW3)

W4=Willem IV, Prince of Orange (1711-1751) (son of JWF) and Anne of Great Britain (daughter of G2GB)

WHK=Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (1787-1867) and Charlotte of Denmark

WN=Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (1792-1839) (son of FWN) and Louise of Saxe-Altenburg (Luxembourg descendants) or Pauline of Württemberg (Scandinavian and Dutch descendants)

WPZ=Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1526-1569) and Anna of Hesse




Peter

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Reply with quote  #11 
All very interesting, and a lot of work! I've looked at it but not checked anything yet, and will not attempt to fill in any gaps, as I understand you want the fun yourself. Or if I do I will keep quiet about it. You're quite right that it should be Carol I of Romania, that was my mistake. I knew he died in 1914 and was succeeded by Ferdinand I, but for some reason thought it was before the war began. Not so. Pity in a way, as Ferdinand I would be much easier to link up, but the eve of war is the eve of war, and he wasn't quite on the throne then.

PS I see I was right about the relationships I did give, not bad as I worked them all out in my head without looking anything up, and that my instinct was sound as regards going back through Maria Theresa, which is pleasing. For Franz Josef anyway, but I am pretty confident it will apply for Victor Emmanuel III too. He had the same Bavarian ancestry as Franz Josef, which didn't help for him so wouldn't for Victor Emmanuel either, and I can't see anything else in his bloodline that would link closer than LRBW through his six descents from Maria Theresa. I hope that doesn't count as filling in a gap, it's pretty obvious and anyway I haven't actually worked it out. Alfonso XIII would link closer the same way than through George II, I'm guessing.
royalcello

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Reply with quote  #12 
Thanks Peter.  I think I'm about to call it quits for tonight, to be resumed later this weekend.   I have these big family trees that I must have drawn about ten years ago at least (before the abdication of Grand Duke Jean) and hadn't looked at in awhile [one of descents from LRBW, and two different versions of descents from Johann Georg II of Anhalt-Dessau (1627-1693), grandfather of JWF] spread out all over the place.  (You have to go back to Johann Georg II to include Leka of Albania via his mother Queen Geraldine, but the House of Zogu had not yet emerged in 1914, so no need to bother with them here.)

So far my favorite "surprise" has been "discovering" that Alfonso XIII and Constantine I were third cousins; I would have expected a more distant relationship.  But Constantine's mother Olga of Russia was the daughter of Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, daughter of Amalia of Württemberg, whose sister Maria was the mother of Elisabeth of Austria, mother of Maria Cristina of Austria, mother of Alfonso XIII.    Of course their wives, as granddaughters of Queen Victoria, had a much closer relationship--first cousins--but that doesn't count for the purposes of this chart.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Peter
Alfonso XIII would link closer the same way than through George II, I'm guessing.


I'm not sure what you mean...link closer to whom?  If you mean George V, he and Alfonso XIII were sixth cousins through LRBW, fifth cousins once removed through George II which is what I've gone with.  Incidentally, I like using George II as he's someone people have actually heard of, unlike some of these other common ancestors we rely on.  It's interesting how some royal individuals who would never merit a biography are absolutely crucial genealogically...
Peter

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Reply with quote  #13 

Yes you're right, I did mean George V and I hadn't thought through it properly, via George II is slightly closer. It is remarkable how some obacure albeit royal people do turn out to be the lynchpin in multiple relationships. Prince Paul of Württemberg is an example, but there are a number of others.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #14 
I see you've been filling it up nicely. Surprising, again with Alfonso XIII, that he was related to Gustaf V of Sweden in exactly the same degree as he was Franz Josef. I think you have a mistake with Wilhelm II and Christian X, giving them as 5th cousins through George II. Christian X through his mother was a great-great-grandson of Friedrich Wilhelm III, Wilhelm II's great-grandfather. That would make them second cousins once removed through him.

Also with Franz Josef and Christian X. They are shown as 5c1r through LRBW. However, albeit through different marriages, they are more closely related through Maximilian I of Bavaria. He was Franz Josef's grandfather and Christian X's great-great-great-grandfather, making them 1c3r. One more thing, a mistype, Ferdinand I is shown as having Victor Emmanuel III as his 3c14, obviously meant to be 3c1r.
royalcello

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Reply with quote  #15 
Thanks.  [All fixed now I believe.]  Of course, whatever applies to Christian X also applies to Haakon VII....
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