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DavidV

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Reply with quote  #931 
October 23 1974:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massacre_of_the_Sixty

A portend for 17 years of horror under Communist Derg rule in Ethiopia.
DavidV

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http://alquaiti.com/home/

November 30 1967 was the date Britain handed over Aden and the states of South Arabia to rebel groups who established South Yemen as the first and thankfully only actually Communist regime in the entire Arab World. The results of this were predictable - misery, instability, and fertile ground for Al-Qaeda and ISIS.
 
The region of Hadhramaut includes the Sultanate of Qu'aiti, whose Sultan Ghalib II (born 1948, so he lost his throne at only 19) divided his time between Saudi Arabia and Britain. Many refugees from South Arabia found their way to the Gulf states and Saudi Arabia, including religious scholars (who, btw, do not come from the Salafist/"Wahhabist" school but the Shafi'i jurisprudence).
 
Aden in 1967 was one of many post-war follies of British governments apart from their hasty retreat from Africa. The result of the decline of Western power and influence meant retrogressive Marxism and Islamism found space.
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #933 
December 1:

1640: restoration of the independence of the Kingdom of Portugal under the House of Braganza, who rule for 270 years.

1918: Unification of Greater Romania with the inclusion of Transylvania, and proclamation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).

DavidV

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[image] 

Yesterday, December 12 was the anniversary of Yuan Shikai making his proclamation in 1915 that he was to become Emperor of China - the last monarchy in China and the only one to actually be known as the Empire of China, as the dynasty names (Qing, Ming, Yuan, Song, et al) were the names of the actual state as opposed to the royal family.

Yuan Shikai is a controversial figure in Chinese history. A leading figure in the Qing Dynasty's modernisation of its military, he would become the first official President of the Republic of China, a compromise figure between the conservative old elites of the Empire and the revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-Sen, who was to be his main adversary. It was clear that Yuan and the conservative Beiyang Army clique around him were never truly republican, or even particularly principled. His death and the failure of the Empire project, however, may have helped usher in much greater chaos.

Yuan was not the last one who may have harboured monarchical ambitions in China.



At the 1911 Delhi Durbar in India, George V was enthroned as Emperor of India. Two princely rulers showed dissent - the Maharaja of Baroda, a progressive ruler for his time, refused to bow, while the arch-conservative Maharana of Mewar refused to attend as he felt it beneath his dignity.
Ethiomonarchist

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Image result for Menelik II

Yesterday was also the 103rd anniversary of the death of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.  Menelik II was a transformational leader of Ethiopia.  He introduced many elements of modernity, such as the railroad, electricity, telephones and telegraph, radio, modern banking, the automobile, opened the first modern school, and hospital, and a host of other developments that helped bring Ethiopia into the modern age.  His greatest achievement perhaps was uniting his people to face the Italian invasion, decisively beating them at the Battle of Adwa on March 1, 1896.  Menelik II, his consort Empress Taitu, his various vasal kings and lords, and vast numbers of simple folk crushed the largest European army assembled in Africa until that time.  This victory resulted in the rapid recognition of Ethiopian sovreignty by all the powers of Europe, a first in Africa, and an inspiring trigger that lit the ambition for independence across colonized Africa. 

Born on August 17, 1844 at Angolala, he was the son of Abeto (prince) Besha Wored (later King Haile Melekot of Shewa) and Woizero Ijigayehu.  At the time of his birth, his paternal grandfather, Sahle Selassie, was King of Shewa, a vassal kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire whose ruling family were a male line branch of the Solomonic Dynasty that had ruled as Emperors from ancient times with few interruptions.  Shewa was then enjoying a period of relative autonomy from the Imperial capital in Gondar, although the Emperor was still acknowledged. In 1855, Emperor Tewodros II who had usurped the Imperial throne marched into Shewa to re-incorporate it under the direct rule of the Imperial throne.  Menelik's father King Haile Melekot, gravely ill at the time of the advance of the Emperor, died before he could launch an effective defense of his kingdom and the young 9 year old Menelik was captured and taken prisoner.  Although he was a prisoner, Menelik was treated with indulgence by Tewodros II.  He would later marry Tewodros II's daughter Alitash Tewodros.  He escaped from the mountain fortress of Magdalla in July 1865, abandoning his wife, and returned to Shewa where he reclaimed his throne and the population rose up joyfully to receive him.  As an agnatic line descendent of the Imperial Dynasty, Menelik then put forward his claim to the Imperial throne itself.  However, following Emperor Tewodros II's defeat at Magdalla by the British in 1868, and his suicide, the Imperial throne was briefly held by Tekle Giorgis II, and then finally by Yohannes IV of the Tigrean branch of the Imperial dynasty (a cognatic line).  Although Menelik boasted agnatic descent, he did not have Yohannes IV's military capabilities at the time, so he submitted to him and continued as King of Shewa and a vassal of the new Emperor.  However, he finally succeeded to the Imperial throne after Yohannes IV was killed by a sniper at the Battle of Mettema fighting the Mahdists in March 1889.

Menelik was first married to Woizero Alitash Tewodros, daughter of Emperor Tewodros II.  After that marriage ended he entered a long and unpopular union with the much older but reputed great beauty Woizero Bafena Wolde of Merhabete, who was involved in several plots to overthrow him.  Finally, he married the woman who would be his Empress-consort, Taitu Bitul, a powerful woman descended from the most aristocratic families of northern Ethiopia.  Menelik had no children from his three official wives.  He had three legitimized children outside of his marriages, Abeto Asfaw Wossen Menelik, Woizero Shewarega Menelik and Woizero (later Empress) Zewditu.  His son Asfaw Wossen died young, which left a dilemma as far as the succession.  The next agnatic heir was his first cousin once removed, Dejazmatch Taye Gulilat.  However Menelik II detested this branch of his family as disloyal, and so he instead decided to name a cognatic heir.  For a long time, many believed he would name his first cousin (son of his aunt Tenagnework Sahle Selassie) Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael (father of the future Emperor Haile Selassie) as his heir, but Ras Makonnen died suddenly in 1906.  Menelik's daughter Shewarega had two sons, Dejazmatch Wossen Seged Wodajo (her son by her first marriage to Oromo Nobleman Wodajo Gobena) and Lij Iyasu (her son by Ras (later King) Mikael of Wollo.  Dejazmatch Wossen Seged was eliminated from the succession due to dwarfism (he also pre-deceased his grandfather) and so the ill-fated Lij Iyasu became his heir.

Thus yesterday also marks the date of accession of Lij Iyasu to the Imperial Solomonic Throne of Ethiopia (although he refused to be proclaimed, crowned or referred to as Emperor until he was ultimately deposed in 1916).  Had he been proclaimed and crowned, he would have been Iyasu V.

Image result for Lij Iyasu

Lij Iyasu Mikael, Emperor-designate (never proclaimed or crowned)

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The Lion of Judah hath prevailed.

Ethiopia stretches her hands unto God (Quote from Psalm 68 which served as the Imperial Motto of the Ethiopian Empire)

"God and history shall remember your judgment." (Quote from Emperor Haile Selassie I's speech to the League of Nations to plead for assistance against the Italian Invasion, 1936.)
DavidV

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[800px-Emperor_Go-Y%C5%8Dzei2] 


On December 17 1586, Go-Yozei became Emperor of Japan.

As Emperor of Japan from 1586 to 1611, Go-Yozei (or Yozei II) presided over an era in which Toyotomi Hideyoshi had succeeded in reuniting Japan, but also waged a failed war in Korea. In 1600, two years after Toyotomi Hideyoshi died, the Battle of Sekigahara was fought between Toyotomi loyalists and those of Tokugawa Ieyasu, which the latter won and established the Edo or Tokugawa Shogunate. After the Siege of Osaka in 1615, there was some 250 years of peace.

DavidV

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Reply with quote  #937 
[800px-Portrayal_of_Stephen_I%2C_King_of_Hungary_on_the_coronation_pall] 

[Mieszko_II_Lambert] 

Stephen I of Hungary, or St Stephen, was crowned King of Hungary in 1000 AD. Mieszko II Lambert was crowned King of Poland in 1025 AD. Croatia, Bohemia, Hungary and Poland were all kingdoms before certain empires rose.

DavidV

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Reply with quote  #938 


65 years since the Kingdom of Libya came into being. Its overthrow in 1969 brought to power Gaddafi, who became a Left icon and sponsor of terrorism.

Ethiomonarchist

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Long live the rightful King of Libya.  I wish they had found him a better chair that didn't make him look like he was slouching though, or perhaps panned in closer to just show his face without  those odd little tables on either side of him and his knees front and center.  
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The Lion of Judah hath prevailed.

Ethiopia stretches her hands unto God (Quote from Psalm 68 which served as the Imperial Motto of the Ethiopian Empire)

"God and history shall remember your judgment." (Quote from Emperor Haile Selassie I's speech to the League of Nations to plead for assistance against the Italian Invasion, 1936.)
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #940 
May 2 1808: the Peninsular War begins in Spain:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #941 
May 5 1941: the liberation of Ethiopia:
http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/south-africans-in-the-breech/
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #942 
May 6:
1527: Sack of Rome by the forces of Charles V and allies
1536: Siege of Cuzco begins and lasts 10 months
1659: Wallingford House Party faction overthrows Richard Cromwell and recalls the Rump Parliament, paving the way for the Restoration
1682: Louis XIV moves Court to Versailles
1757: the last Mon kingdom, Hanthawaddy is defeated by the Konbaung kingdom of Burma, ending Mon dominance of Lower Burma
1910: George V becomes King of Great Britain and Ireland
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #943 
[Statue_of_emperor_Valentinian_II_detail] 

The death of Valentinian II on May 15 392 AD was a key event in the decline of the Western Roman Empire.
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #944 
June 9:
68 AD: Death of Roman Emperor Nero
746 AD: Abbasid revolt against Umayyad Caliphate

June 10:
1916: Beginning of the Arab Revolt led by the Hashemites against the Ottoman Empire.
DavidV

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Reply with quote  #945 
June 17:

1565: Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru of Japan is assassinated. The Muromachi Shogunate is enfeebled as Oda Nobunaga rises to power.

1794: The Kingdom of Corsica is established with George III as its King. A constitution is adopted and the state lasts for two years.
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