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royalcello

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I'm preparing a new page for my website on the German Empire in 1900 (hopefully to be unveiled for its 145th anniversary Monday) and have a genealogy question that's a bit obscure even by my standards. I can't seem to figure out who would have been regarded as heir to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Hesse between the accession of Ernest Louis in 1892 and the birth of his son Georg Donatus in 1906. Does Peter or anyone else know?
Peter

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The first Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt was Georg I, one of the sons of Philip the Magnanimous who divided the Hesse patrimony between them all. You can see here that his only male-line descendants after the death in 1877 of Grand Duke Ludwig III were through the latter’s previously deceased younger brother Prince Karl of Hesse and by Rhine, the elder son of whom therefore succeeded as Ludwig IV. Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig was Ludwig IV’s only son to survive childhood, but he had two paternal uncles, Princes Heinrich and Wilhelm.

They both evidently married morganatically, so their issue would have been excluded; whether they themselves were I don’t know, that would depend on House law, which DC might well know something about for the line but I don’t. If they were personally eligible to succeed then Heinrich would have been heir presumptive from Ludwig IV’s death on 13th March 1892 until his own on 16th September 1900. Wilhelm having died earlier that year, the heir presumptive after that until the birth of Prince Georg Donatus on 8th November 1906 would I imagine have been Alexander Friedrich, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, since he was dynastic senior of the whole House of Hesse. As he was not from the defunct line of Electors of Hesse displaced by Prussia, I wouldn’t think there would have been an issue with his succession.

royalcello

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Thanks. I guess I'll assume that Prince Heinrich remained eligible, as Franz Ferdinand remained heir in Austria, unless someone tells me otherwise.
royalcello

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And here is the promised page, in time for the anniversary. Hope people like it.

 

http://www.royaltymonarchy.com/sovereigns/1900Germany.html

Ponocrates

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Nicely done.   I like that the German Empire had many kings, grand dukes, and princes, which preserved the integrity of the traditional regions and titles.  
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Peter

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Don’t forget the dukes! I liked it too. Below are shown the German Realms sovereigns at 28th June 1914 (the date of my 1914 charts) who were different from their 18th January 1900 predecessor. The relationships displayed are between the 1914 sovereign and the 1900 incumbent. There is none shown for Ernst August III, Duke of Brunswick, as the ducal throne was vacant in 1900.

An interesting point; as well as being the date of the proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor, 18th January 1871 was the 170th anniversary of the coronation in Königsberg of Friedrich I, Wilhelm I’s great-great-great-grandfather, as first King in Prussia. I don’t know whether the date of the proclamation was chosen to be on the anniversary or if it was just coincidence, but if the latter a serendipitous one I would say.

Theodore has obviously been busy lately, as the table linked here is also a recent creation. I violently disagreed with the choices for France and Italy; while I take the point that choosing the soi-disant ‘legitimist’ candidate for France avoids ambiguity as to the proper heir I still wouldn’t have done it, and for Italy don’t see what the problem is over the Aosta heir. Also, Hochkönig is a style with no historical roots in Germany so I would have stuck to Deutscher Kaiser, and on historical and ethnic grounds would award Macedonia to neither of Serbia and Greece, but rather Bulgaria. But, those differences aside, it is a vision I would love to see realised, however little I expect to.

SovereignFromR'shipSovereignFromR'ship
Friedrich August III, King of Saxony1904NErnst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg1908N
Ludwig III, King of Bavaria19131cErnst August III, Duke of Brunswick1913
Friedrich August II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg1900SonBernhard III, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen1914Son
Wilhelm Ernst, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach1901GsHeinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss Elder Line1902Son
Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden1907SonLeopold IV, Prince of Lippe19057c
Adolf Friedrich VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz1914GsAdolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe1911Son
Carl Eduard, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha1900NHeinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line1913Son
Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt1904Son   
royalcello

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My feeling on Italy is that since the succession dispute will eventually resolve itself in favour of Amedeo's young grandson Umberto, there is no reason to deny Victor Emanuel "IV"--who was, after all, born into a reigning monarchy as the grandson of the reigning King and actually held the status of Crown Prince for a month at the age of nine in 1946--the status of rightful King of (Northern) Italy as long as he is alive, and his son after him. I know he's reportedly a somewhat questionable character, but then I thought part of the point of hereditary monarchy is that you don't get to pick on that sort of basis. Who knows how he would have turned out differently had he not been exiled with his family at nine and had grown up as the heir to a living monarchy. As for his marriage, had the Italian monarchy survived it's likely that marriage requirements would have been relaxed as they have been in all surviving monarchies, and Amedeo hasn't exactly done better with his second marriage anyway. At least Victor Emanuel is still married to his first wife.

I went with the senior branch of the Two Sicilies Bourbons for the nakedly pragmatic reason that Pedro has plenty of sons, and Carlo (adorable as his two daughters, one of whom appears in "Grace of Monaco," are) does not. Also, I think there is at the very least reasonable doubt as to whether the "Act of Cannes" has any validity, since any possibility of the Spanish and Neapolitan crowns merging (what it was meant to avoid) has obviously disappeared.

Regarding Germany, I think that the territory currently known as "Germany" is just a bit too small to call its ruler "Emperor," and as much as I would love to restore historic Prussia to Germany I don't see how that could be done without repeating the horrors of 1945-50 in reverse. (Remember that this fantasy does not presume that the World Wars etc. never happened, but rather that at some point since then European public opinion miraculously swings back decisively in favour of Monarchy. But even that wouldn't make what is now parts of Poland, Lithuania, and Russia German again.) I also decided to defer to the belief of many Catholic monarchists that there really should be only one Emperor in Western Europe, since 1440 a Habsburg.

I have made other charts that favour Henri VII for France, but decided to go with Louis XX there. I respect both positions, though I get frustrated with the claim that the position one disagrees with has no credibility at all.

Peter

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When you don't think it does have any credibility, what are you supposed to say? A reasonable point on Germany and I agree over historic Prussia, but still don't like High King outside of Ireland. Perhaps German King and King of Prussia? The first half reflects the title borne by Holy Roman Emperors and Emperors-Elect, while still leaving room for the other three kingdoms (or even four, with a revived Hanover). On Italy, northern Italy also reflects a historic realm and title so I approved of that. I don't of Victor Emmanuel and do consider him and his son disqualified, but as you say it makes no difference in the end which claim you pick now.
royalcello

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A new German monarchy, even hypothetically, would not be an exact continuation of anything that had gone before it, but a new institution adapted for the 21st century, so I didn't think it was necessarily problematic to invent a new title. I'm not sure that a "German King" would self-evidently outrank a "King of Bavaria," since the two titles never coexisted. The revival of the title "King of Prussia" I certainly do propose for Georg Friedrich, hence the designation of his heir as "Crown Prince of Prussia" (my theoretical high kingship being semi-elective like Malaysia's).

Alas, few outside this forum are likely to care either way. [frown]
Windemere

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Thanks for posting the German Empire in 1900 table. It's interesting to contemplate what the 10 modern German provinces (bundeslander) would look like if their monarchical families were still reigning. In most cases, the old kingdoms and grand-duchies would fit fairly comfortably into the geographic boundaries of the present-day provinces.

Brandenburg was the foundation-state of the old Kingdom of Prussia.
Saxony would include the old Kingdom of Saxony.
Bavaria would include the old Kingdom of Bavaria.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern would include the old Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Mecklenburg-Schwerin (although there is now only one Mecklenburg line, Schwerin having gone extinct in 2001).
Baden-Wurttemberg would include the old Kingdom of Wurttemberg and Grand-Duchy of Baden.
Hesse would include the old Grand Duchy of Hesse and Prussian (Electoral) Hesse, as well as the district of Waldeck. (The dynastic Grand Ducal line of Hesse-Darmstadt became extinct in 1968, although the morganatic agnatic line is still extant); (the senior Hesse-Kassel (Electoral) line has inherited the claim to the Grand-Duchy).
Neidersachsen would include the old Kingdom of Hannover (part of Prussia), the old Grand-Duchy of Oldenburg, the old Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe, as well as the little district of Pyrmont.
Thuringia would include the old Grand-Duchy of Saxe-Weimar & Eisenach, and the old Duchies of Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, and Saxe-Altenburg ( the Saxe-Altenburg line became extinct in 1991); also included would be the Principalities of Reuss ( only one line still extant, the older line became extinct in 1927);  also included would be the Principalities of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen & Rudolstadt, though both agnatic lines are now extinct.
Anhalt would include the old Duchy of Anhalt.
NorthRhine-Westphalia would include the old Principality of Lippe.

Rhineland-Palatinate (previously Prussian, Bavarian, and Hessian) and Saarland (previously Prussian and Bavarian) are the only two present-day German provinces with no sovereign monarchical families of their own, although it's likely that there are some old mediatized families who once reigned thereabouts.

It would be nice if someday, on a local or provincial level, some the present  German bundeslander might incline toward restoring some of their old royal or grand-ducal families, as a focus for historical and cultural patriotism. We can only hope.

My own preference would be to keep Italy as a unified kingdom under the House of Savoy. I'd probably go with Amedeo as king, since his son and grandsons would perpetuate the agnatic Savoy line, which is pretty thin on the ground. However, I'd erect a brand-new semi-salic ducal title, probably based upon Piedmont or Sardinia, for Vittorio Emanuele and his descendants. I'd also create a new Grand-Duchy of Two Sicilies (within the Italian kingdom) for the Borbone-Two Sicilies family. Jaime (Giacomo) of Two Sicilies was evidently born a number of years prior to his parents' marriage, but in these modern times that seems to be of little consequence as family recognition appears to be the primary element in the determination of dynastic status nowadays.






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