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Peter

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Reply with quote  #16 

The next change came with the death of Olav V of Norway and the accession of his son, the current monarch, as Harald V. ‘Inbred’ is perhaps the second favourite word in the anti-monarchical lexicon, though ‘parasite’ is the clear leader. The combination of course is not unknown, indeed is often seen.

I suppose there are some royalty that might be identified as parasites, though I can’t think of any I personally would attach this unpleasant label to. Most seem to me to be hard-working people dedicated to duty. As I am in a position to know, ‘inbred’ is for the most part equally inaccurate. There are exceptions, though, and Harald V might fairly be said to be one. He has only six separate great-grandparents rather than the usual eight, Frederik VIII of Denmark and his consort Princess Lovisa of Sweden and Norway being both his father’s paternal and his mother’s maternal grandparents. Of the others, Oscar II of Sweden and Norway was Princess Lovisa’s uncle and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, consort of Edward VII of Great Britain, was Frederik VIII’s sister. Only Edward VII and Oscar II’s spouse Princess Sophia of Nassau were not near relations of others in the six, though far from unrelated.

Harald V however appears entirely unaffected by what has to be regarded as a significant loss of ancestry, which is actually far more often the case than not. While genuine problems can be caused by inbreeding, they generally speaking won’t be, and those afflicted, such as the unfortunate Don Carlos of Spain, eldest son of Felipe II, and that country’s last Habsburg king Carlos II, the great-nephew among (many) other things of Don Carlos, can reasonably be considered to have been unlucky in the genetic lottery that is recombination, as opposed to simply victims of unwise marriage practices. I don't dispute that the practices were unwise, inbreeding does measurably increase the risk of defect, but others as inbred as they have been perfectly fine and normal in every respect.

Norway’s present king is not in fact quite as inbred as they, but enough so that his accession brought little significant change to the pattern of relationships. The only new ancestor introduced is his maternal grandfather, who happened to also be maternal grandfather of Baudouin of Belgium, forming a slightly closer relationship than Baudouin and Olaf V had enjoyed. That it was only slightly is another demonstration that for once the inbreeding is genuine, not the false charge made from ignorance it usually is.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #17 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at the accession of King Harald V of Norway, 17th January 1991
Reigning monarchRainier IIIBaudouinE IIJeanM IIC XVI GJC IBeatrixH-A IIHarald V
Rainier III of Monaco4c KBa7c1r JWFO6c LIXHD5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
5c KLB6c LIXHD5c KLB6c1r LIXHD
Baudouin of Belgium4c KBa3c CIXD2c1r MIP2c F8D2c1r OIISN4c LPIF3c1r WDN3c MIP1c CPSN
Elizabeth II of Great Britain7c1r JWFO3c CIXD4c WHC3c CIXD
3c VGB
3c VGB3c VGB5c FIIW7c1r JWFO2c E7GB
Jean of Luxembourg6c LIXHD2c1r MIP4c WHC3c1r WDN3c1r WDN4c FrI2S3c1r WDN2c1r MIP3c WDN
Margrethe II of Denmark5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
2c F8D3c CIXD
3c VGB
3c1r WDN1c GVIS3c VGB2c1r FFIIMS4c2r MIB2c F8D
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
2c1r OIISN3c VGB3c1r WDN1c GVIS3c VGB3c GVWP4c2r MIB2c1r OIISN
Juan Carlos I of Spain5c KLB4c LPIF3c VGB4c FrI2S3c VGB3c VGB4c FLMS5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
3c VGB
Beatrix of the Netherlands6c LIXHD3c1r WDN5c FIIW3c1r WDN2c1r FFIIMS3c GVWP4c FLMS5c KLHL3c1r WDN
Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein5c KLB3c MIP7c1r JWFO2c1r MIP4c2r MIB4c2r MIB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
5c KLHL4c1r MIB
Harald V of Norway6c1r LIXHD1c CPSN2c E7GB3c WDN2c F8D2c1r OIISN3c VGB3c1r WDN4c1r MIB
Peter

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Reply with quote  #18 
Key:  
CIVSCIXDCPSN
Carlos IV of Spain (1)Christian IX of Denmark (2)Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway (1)
E7GBF8DFFIIMS
Edward VII of Great Britain (1)Frederik VIII of Denmark (2)F Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FI2SFIIWFLMS
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (1)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)Friedrich Ludwig, HGD of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FrI2SGVISGVWP
Francesco I of the Two Sicilies (1)Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (1)Georg Viktor, Prince of Waldeck & Pyrmont (1)
JWFOKBaKFB
Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (2)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (1)Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (2)
KLBKLHLLIIE
Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (5)Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1)Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)
LIXHDLPIFMIB
Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (3)Louis-Philippe I of France (1)Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (3)
MIPOIISNVGB
Miguel I of Portugal (3)Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (2)Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (6)
WDNWHC 
Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (6)Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Cassel (1) 
Most connections formed:VGB, WDN (6)KLB (5)LIXHD, MIB, MIP (3)CIXD, F8D, JWFO, KFB, OIISN (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #19 

In 1993 King Baudouin died suddenly and unexpectedly, plunging his country into mourning and bringing his brother to the throne as Albert II. I had puzzled over whether there was any point in doing a chart where relationships would naturally change not one iota from the previous one, just to change the name in the red links for the Belgian sovereign, then it occurred to me that if I stuck strictly to current sovereigns, rather than covering every accession since that of Elizabeth II, I didn’t need to worry about it.

That was the final refinement of my idea, and leads to the next chart being of the accession not of Baudouin’s brother Albert but his nephew Henri, as Grand Duke of Luxembourg upon the abdication of his father Jean (still living in, I hope, contented retirement as I write). Grand Duke Henri’s mother Princess Joséphine of Belgium brought him a range of royal descents not possessed by his father, drawing from both Catholic and Protestant lines, with the result that his nearest relationships to seven out of the other nine sovereigns were through different ancestors to those shown for his father. 

Of the two exceptions one, to Queen Beatrix, was through the same ancestor but by his second as well as his first marriage, the former following a completely different path, as can be seen by clicking the respective red links (or indeed just the one below, which shows both relationships, second marriage first). Only Grand Duke Henri’s nearest relationship to Hans-Adam II changed from his father’s by just the expected one degree. And while the keys for the two charts look similar superficially, WHC dropping out and being replaced by L3B and all other ancestors being the same, a comparison of the two statistical summaries shows the real extent of the differences:

1999VGB, WDN (6)KLB (5)LIXHD, MIB, MIP (3)CIXD, F8D, JWFO, KFB, OIISN (2)
2000VGB (6)KLB (5)CIXD, F8D, MIB, OIISN, WDN (3)CPSN, JWFO, KBa, KFB, LIXHD, LPIF, MIP (2)

In all, Grand Duke Henri’s accession was a textbook example of both the impact of equal marriage on the web of relationships between the royal families of any particular day, and the mixing of Catholic and Protestant royal blood that began to be seen in the 20th century more than at any time since the Reformation. And, although it does not apply in Grand Duke Henri’s case, this was occurring in both directions, with Catholics acceding to Balkan thrones and having their children brought up Orthodox, these then marrying out into Protestant lines. This trend however was snuffed out too early to have a widespread effect, the Balkan kingdoms being alas defunct and the equal marriage customs that would have led to the transmission of descent from their royal houses nearly so. This 2000 change of reign, then, shows only an aspect of what might have been, as opposed to being an exemplar of continuing change in royal relationships.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #20 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at the accession of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, 7th October 2000
Reigning monarchRainier IIIElizabeth IIMargrethe IIC XVI GJC IBeatrixH-A IIHarald VAlbert IIHenri
Rainier III of Monaco7c1r JWFO5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
5c KLB6c LIXHD5c KLB6c1r LIXHD4c KBa4c1r KBa
Elizabeth II of Great Britain7c1r JWFO3c CIXD
3c VGB
3c VGB3c VGB5c FIIW7c1r JWFO2c E7GB3c CIXD3c1r CIXD
Margrethe II of Denmark5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
3c CIXD
3c VGB
1c GVIS3c VGB2c1r FFIIMS4c2r MIB2c F8D2c F8D2c1r F8D
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden5c1r KFB
5c1r KLB
3c VGB1c GVIS3c VGB3c GVWP4c2r MIB2c1r OIISN2c1r OIISN3c OIISN
Juan Carlos I of Spain5c KLB3c VGB3c VGB3c VGB4c FLMS5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
3c VGB4c LPIF4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
Beatrix of the Netherlands6c LIXHD5c FIIW2c1r FFIIMS3c GVWP4c FLMS5c KLHL3c1r WDN3c1r WDN4c WDN
Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein5c KLB7c1r JWFO4c2r MIB4c2r MIB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
5c KLHL4c1r MIB3c MIP3c MIP
Harald V of Norway6c1r LIXHD2c E7GB2c F8D2c1r OIISN3c VGB3c1r WDN4c1r MIB1c CPSN1c1r CPSN
Albert II of Belgium4c KBa3c CIXD2c F8D2c1r OIISN4c LPIF3c1r WDN3c MIP1c CPSNU L3B
Henri of Luxembourg4c1r KBa3c1r CIXD2c1r F8D3c OIISN4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
4c WDN3c MIP1c1r CPSNN L3B
Peter

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Reply with quote  #21 
Key:  
CIVSCIXDCPSN
Carlos IV of Spain (1)Christian IX of Denmark (3)Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway (2)
E7GBF8DFFIIMS
Edward VII of Great Britain (1)Frederik VIII of Denmark (3)F Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FI2SFIIWFLMS
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (1)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)Friedrich Ludwig, HGD of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FrI2SGVISGVWP
Francesco I of the Two Sicilies (1)Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (1)Georg Viktor, Prince of Waldeck & Pyrmont (1)
JWFOKBaKFB
Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (2)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (2)Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (2)
KLBKLHLL3B
Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (5)Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1)Léopold III of Belgium (1)
LIIELIXHDLPIF
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (2)Louis-Philippe I of France (2)
MIBMIPOIISN
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (3)Miguel I of Portugal (2)Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (3)
VGBWDN 
Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (6)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (3) 
Most connections formed:VGB (6)KLB (5)CIXD, F8D, MIB, OIISN, WDN (3)CPSN, JWFO, KBa, KFB, LIXHD, LPIF, MIP (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #22 

The next accession of a current sovereign was that of Albert II of Monaco, following the death of his father Rainier III, who had been the doyen, a place conceded perhaps surprisingly recently to Elizabeth II. The marriage of Prince Rainier’s great-grandfather Albert I, noted for his achievements as an oceanographer among other things, had been brief and unhappy but did introduce the only recent strain of mainstream royal blood in Monaco’s princely house. Rainier’s own wife was as the world knows the famously beautiful Oscar-winning American actress Grace Kelly. Her father, a self-made millionaire and triple Olympic gold medal winner, was of Irish immigrant stock, and her mother of German. Not an uninteresting or undistinguished maternal ancestry for Albert II, then, but also not in any way a royal one, and changes in relationships are as little as one would expect.

If you look at the relationships of Albert II himself they seem quite a lot different from the preceding chart, but they are not, just by one degree of distance. The appearance of extensive change is due to the effect of that one degree on the incredibly complex relationships between descendants of two of the sons of Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (KFB in the chart), Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (KLB) and Leopold I, Grand Duke of Baden.

They were half-brothers, the much younger Leopold being the son of Karl Friedrich’s second marriage. He married his brother’s granddaughter, his own great-niece, with mind-twisting consequences for the relationships of further generations. Obviously all descendants of Leopold are descendants of Karl Ludwig also. But, depending on the generations involved, their closest relationship with other Karl Ludwig descendants can be through Karl Friedrich, Karl Ludwig’s father, taking the much shorter route to him through Leopold. Or it can be through Karl Ludwig himself, or there can be an equal relationship through either. 

As it happens the only Leopold descendants in these two charts are Margrethe II and Carl XVI Gustaf. In the previous chart they were 5c1r either way to Rainier III, both of which relationships were shown (or, in the case of Margrethe II, all four of which). In this one they are 5c2r to Albert II through Karl Friedrich, as the red links show, but 6c through Karl Ludwig. As by the reckoning used here the former relationship is the closer only it appears in the chart, giving the deceptive appearance of more change than has actually occurred. It is also only it that is shown via the links in the chart, occurring twice in the case of Margrethe II, who is a two times descendant of Leopold. The link in the narrative here however shows her first as 6c via KLB, twice again.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #23 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at the accession of Prince Albert II of Monaco, 6th April 2005
Reigning monarchE IIM IIC XVI GJC IBeatrixH-A IIHarald VA II BHenriA II M
Elizabeth II of Great Britain3c CIXD
3c VGB
3c VGB3c VGB5c FIIW7c1r JWFO2c E7GB3c CIXD3c1r CIXD7c2r JWFO
Margrethe II of Denmark3c CIXD
3c VGB
1c GVIS3c VGB2c1r FFIIMS4c2r MIB2c F8D2c F8D2c1r F8D5c2r KFB
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden3c VGB1c GVIS3c VGB3c GVWP4c2r MIB2c1r OIISN2c1r OIISN3c OIISN5c2r KFB
Juan Carlos I of Spain3c VGB3c VGB3c VGB4c FLMS5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
3c VGB4c LPIF4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
5c1r KLB
Beatrix of the Netherlands5c FIIW2c1r FFIIMS3c GVWP4c FLMS5c KLHL3c1r WDN3c1r WDN4c WDN6c1r LIXHD
Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein7c1r JWFO4c2r MIB4c2r MIB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
5c KLHL4c1r MIB3c MIP3c MIP5c1r KLB
Harald V of Norway2c E7GB2c F8D2c1r OIISN3c VGB3c1r WDN4c1r MIB1c CPSN1c1r CPSN7c LIXHD
Albert II of Belgium3c CIXD2c F8D2c1r OIISN4c LPIF3c1r WDN3c MIP1c CPSNU L3B4c1r KBa
Henri of Luxembourg3c1r CIXD2c1r F8D3c OIISN4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
4c WDN3c MIP1c1r CPSNN L3B5c KBa
Albert II of Monaco7c2r JWFO5c2r KFB5c2r KFB5c1r KLB6c1r LIXHD5c1r KLB7c LIXHD4c1r KBa5c KBa
Peter

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Reply with quote  #24 
Key:  
CIVSCIXDCPSN
Carlos IV of Spain (1)Christian IX of Denmark (3)Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway (2)
E7GBF8DFFIIMS
Edward VII of Great Britain (1)Frederik VIII of Denmark (3)F Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FI2SFIIWFLMS
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (1)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)Friedrich Ludwig, HGD of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FrI2SGVISGVWP
Francesco I of the Two Sicilies (1)Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (1)Georg Viktor, Prince of Waldeck & Pyrmont (1)
JWFOKBaKFB
Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (2)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (2)Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (2)
KLBKLHLL3B
Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (3)Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1)Léopold III of Belgium (1)
LIIELIXHDLPIF
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (2)Louis-Philippe I of France (2)
MIBMIPOIISN
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (3)Miguel I of Portugal (2)Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (3)
VGBWDN 
Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (6)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (3) 
Most connections formed:VGB (6)CIXD, F8D, KLB, MIB, OIISN, WDN (3)CPSN. JWFO, KBa, KFB, LIXHD, LPIF, MIP (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #25 

I mentioned that I had a narrative peg for the next change, the accession of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands following the abdication of his mother Queen Beatrix. It is that he is the first of a new kind of European sovereign, paternally a member of an in every way respectable but nevertheless ordinary family, rather than of one of the ancient dynasties that for a thousand years have occupied European thrones.

The first but he will by no means be the last; such will certainly happen in Denmark and Sweden (OK, the Bernadottes are hardly an ancient dynasty, but the club has always accepted new members from time to time; all membership restrictions have however now been abolished), and it is hard to see how it will not follow in Belgium, Spain and Norway. Britain too, should it turn out that the royal child still awaited as I write is a girl (which seems to be universally anticipated).*

The Grimaldis it is true are in fact Polignacs, but that is at least an old and distinguished French noble house. The Liechtensteins are not one of the most ancient dynasties, but I would not be surprised (though I will not be around to see it) if in a few generations more they are the most ancient left on a throne, seeming to have no inclination to change from Salic law.

I freely admit to snobbish instincts where royalty is concerned. However I do not in any way challenge the right of future sovereigns because they do not come from the ancient houses, or disrespect the families they do come from. In the end, you can’t be a sovereign and not royal, indeed being a sovereign is the epitome of royalty, and blood is to that extent irrelevant. I merely note with a little regret, though with nothing but good wishes and respect to King Willem-Alexander and future sovereigns of his pattern, the beginning of the passing of these ancient houses from the centre of affairs, and the severing of yet another link with Europe’s history.



* Wrongly, as it turned out. Congratulations to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on the safe delivery of their son.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #26 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at the accession of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, 30th April 2013
Reigning monarchElizabeth IIM IIC XVI GJC IH-A IIHarald VA II BHenriA II MW-A
Elizabeth II of Great Britain3c CIXD
3c VGB
3c VGB3c VGB7c1r JWFO2c E7GB3c CIXD3c1r CIXD7c2r JWFO5c1r FIIW
Margrethe II of Denmark3c CIXD
3c VGB
1c GVIS3c VGB4c2r MIB2c F8D2c F8D2c1r F8D5c2r KFB3c FFIIMS
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden3c VGB1c GVIS3c VGB4c2r MIB2c1r OIISN2c1r OIISN3c OIISN5c2r KFB3c1r GVWP
Juan Carlos I of Spain3c VGB3c VGB3c VGB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
3c VGB4c LPIF4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
5c1r KLB4c1r FLMS
Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein7c1r JWFO4c2r MIB4c2r MIB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
4c1r MIB3c MIP3c MIP5c1r KLB5c1r KLHL
Harald V of Norway2c E7GB2c F8D2c1r OIISN3c VGB4c1r MIB1c CPSN1c1r CPSN7c LIXHD3c2r WDN
Albert II of Belgium3c CIXD2c F8D2c1r OIISN4c LPIF3c MIP1c CPSNU L3B4c1r KBa3c2r WDN
Henri of Luxembourg3c1r CIXD2c1r F8D3c OIISN4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
3c MIP1c1r CPSNN L3B5c KBa4c1r WDN
Albert II of Monaco7c2r JWFO5c2r KFB5c2r KFB5c1r KLB5c1r KLB7c LIXHD4c1r KBa5c KBa7c LIXHD
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands5c1r FIIW3c FFIIMS3c1r GVWP4c1r FLMS5c1r KLHL3c2r WDN3c2r WDN4c1r WDN7c LIXHD
Peter

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Reply with quote  #27 
Key:  
CIVSCIXDCPSN
Carlos IV of Spain (1)Christian IX of Denmark (3)Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway (2)
E7GBF8DFFIIMS
Edward VII of Great Britain (1)Frederik VIII of Denmark (3)F Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FI2SFIIWFLMS
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (1)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)Friedrich Ludwig, HGD of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FrI2SGVISGVWP
Francesco I of the Two Sicilies (1)Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (1)Georg Viktor, Prince of Waldeck & Pyrmont (1)
JWFOKBaKFB
Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (2)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (2)Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (2)
KLBKLHLL3B
Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (3)Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1)Léopold III of Belgium (1)
LIIELIXHDLPIF
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (2)Louis-Philippe I of France (2)
MIBMIPOIISN
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (3)Miguel I of Portugal (2)Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (3)
VGBWDN 
Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (6)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (3) 
Most connections formed:VGB (6)CIXD, F8D, KLB, MIB, OIISN, WDN (3)CPSN. JWFO, KBa, KFB, LIXHD, LPIF, MIP (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #28 

Finally, at least I hope it will be final for this year, a chart showing the relationships of European monarchs today, the accession day of King Philippe of Belgium. He has a not uninteresting maternal ancestry, including descent from the famous Marquis de La Fayette, a major figure in both the American and French Revolutions, and from Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico. His maternal grandfather’s mother was Belgian, and you will see it suggested that King Philippe is the first Belgian sovereign with Belgian blood. This was actually his great-grandfather Albert I, who had descents from Belgian nobility (and, as it happens, again from Hernán Cortés) through his mother. Albert I’s wife Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria also had such descents, making it doubly untrue that King Philippe’s Belgian blood is a first.

What his maternal ancestry does not contain is connections with other sovereigns, unless you care to go back to the 16th century. So, as with the chart for King Willem-Alexander, there is little actual change in relationships. There is rather more in the chart which follows that for King Philippe, showing relationships among the current generation of European heirs. As mentioned right back at the beginning of the thread, this and its key are followed by combined statistics for all the charts from 1952 on, giving an overview of changes over six decades. Originally a single table, this had to be broken into four, which normally I would do with the ancestors arranged by number of connections. I can’t see any meaningful way to do that over a range of charts, so did a simple alphabetical split by code.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #29 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at the accession of King Philippe of Belgium, 21st July 2013
Reigning monarchE IIM IIC XVI GJC IH-A IIHarald VHenriAlbert IIW-APhilippe
Elizabeth II of Great Britain3c CIXD
3c VGB
3c VGB3c VGB7c1r JWFO2c E7GB3c1r CIXD7c2r JWFO5c1r FIIW3c1r CIXD
Margrethe II of Denmark3c CIXD
3c VGB
1c GVIS3c VGB4c2r MIB2c F8D2c1r F8D5c2r KFB3c FFIIMS2c1r F8D
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden3c VGB1c GVIS3c VGB4c2r MIB2c1r OIISN3c OIISN5c2r KFB3c1r GVWP3c OIISN
Juan Carlos I of Spain3c VGB3c VGB3c VGB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
3c VGB4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
5c1r KLB4c1r FLMS4c1r LPIF
Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein7c1r JWFO4c2r MIB4c2r MIB5c CIVS
5c FI2S
5c KLB
5c LIIE
4c1r MIB3c MIP5c1r KLB5c1r KLHL3c1r MIP
Harald V of Norway2c E7GB2c F8D2c1r OIISN3c VGB4c1r MIB1c1r CPSN7c LIXHD3c2r WDN1c1r CPSN
Henri of Luxembourg3c1r CIXD2c1r F8D3c OIISN4c1r FrI2S
4c1r LPIF
3c MIP1c1r CPSN5c KBa4c1r WDN1c L3B
Albert II of Monaco7c2r JWFO5c2r KFB5c2r KFB5c1r KLB5c1r KLB7c LIXHD5c KBa7c LIXHD5c KBa
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands5c1r FIIW3c FFIIMS3c1r GVWP4c1r FLMS5c1r KLHL3c2r WDN4c1r WDN7c LIXHD4c1r WDN
Philippe of Belgium3c1r CIXD2c1r F8D3c OIISN4c1r LPIF3c1r MIP1c1r CPSN1c L3B5c KBa4c1r WDN
Peter

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Reply with quote  #30 
Key:  
CIVSCIXDCPSN
Carlos IV of Spain (1)Christian IX of Denmark (3)Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway (2)
E7GBF8DFFIIMS
Edward VII of Great Britain (1)Frederik VIII of Denmark (3)F Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FI2SFIIWFLMS
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (1)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)Friedrich Ludwig, HGD of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1)
FrI2SGVISGVWP
Francesco I of the Two Sicilies (1)Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (1)Georg Viktor, Prince of Waldeck & Pyrmont (1)
JWFOKBaKFB
Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (2)Karl, Grand Duke of Baden (2)Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (2)
KLBKLHLL3B
Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (3)Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1)Léopold III of Belgium (1)
LIIELIXHDLPIF
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (2)Louis-Philippe I of France (2)
MIBMIPOIISN
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (3)Miguel I of Portugal (2)Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (3)
VGBWDN 
Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (6)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (3) 
Most connections formed:VGB (6)CIXD, F8D, KLB, MIB, OIISN, WDN (3)CPSN. JWFO, KBa, KFB, LIXHD, LPIF, MIP (2)Others (1)
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