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Peter

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Sarajevo was once known as ‘the Jerusalem of Europe’. This was not because it had either the antiquity or the sacred associations of Jerusalem, being an Ottoman foundation dating from the fifteenth century. However, it was for long the largest and most populous city of the Balkans, drawing people from all over the peninsula, and thus came to echo the region’s extraordinary ethnic and cultural diversity. Uniquely in the Europe of the day, strolling through a Sarajevo neighbourhood you might pass first a mosque, then a synagogue, then a Catholic church and finally an Orthodox. Though for very different reasons, Jerusalem was then the only other city where you could find people of such different faiths living cheek by jowl, hence the nickname.

For people of Christian, European culture, Jerusalem is defined by a death. And so too now is Sarajevo. The assassination there by Serbian nationalists of the Austrian Crown Prince, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, along with his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, did not have the cosmic significance of Christ’s death, but, ultimately leading to both World Wars, its consequences for Europe and the wider world could hardly have been more profound, or catastrophic.

There were other, underlying causes, of course. If Europe was not exactly a powder keg waiting to explode, relations between the Powers were such that it was, at least, in a dangerously flammable condition. But the murders were the proximate cause, and we can never know whether without them tensions would eventually have eased and peaceful settlements been reached. As it was, the settlement left millions dead or crippled, Europe’s cultural and physical landscape irreparably marred, and the pre-war political order shattered for ever.

On that June day in Sarajevo, there were 40 different European monarchies, 41 if you count the Ottoman Empire. When the last drop of blood had been spilled, 15 were left standing. Germany, a monarchical nation from its very beginnings, became a republic whose shaky foundations soon enough led to a collapse into dictatorship. Russia, a nation and vast empire created, defined and bound together by its monarchs, fell into a dictatorship as cruel and monstrous in every way as the later Nazi dictatorship, and far longer-lasting. Austria-Hungary, a patchwork of peoples held together only by the Habsburg monarchy, was broken up by Wilsonian ideology into a scattering of little nations, at odds with each other and hapless prey to first Nazi Germany then the Soviet Union.

This project is concerned with the relationships of European sovereigns. In the case of World War One, there being far fewer sovereigns after it is a matter for regret not only for amateurs of genealogy like myself, but for anyone who cares about the scarcely paralleled miseries of the 20th century, the cataclysmic destruction and mass deaths that marked its course. In the shattering of Europe’s pre-1914 monarchical political and social order lay the seeds of World War Two, of the Holocaust, and of half Europe crushed under the Soviet heel for most of the century’s latter half.

There having been so many sovereigns makes this part of the project very large, large enough that it has been divided into three further parts. This, the first of the three, is the most straightforward. It deals with the sovereigns of European nations, as opposed to those of the constituent realms of the German Empire. These are treated of in part two, then part three shows relationships between the two sets of sovereigns. The German Emperor Wilhelm II, as a member of both sets, appears both here and in part two. He could have been left out of part three, since his relationships there duplicate those in this part, but appears so that part three shows as complete a picture as possible. Not appearing in any part are the Kings of Serbia and Montenegro, Peter I and Nikola I, as they were unrelated by blood to other sovereigns.

This first part consists of just three charts, showing first the relationships of Catholic sovereigns with each other, then Protestant and Orthodox, then finally between those two groupings. Keys will follow the charts in separate posts; they probably could fit in the same post but it is easier for me to do it this way, and I don’t think there’s any difference in convenience for those looking at the charts. Two tables of combined statistics come next, then finally a note on posterities.

The Catholic sovereigns include the Princes of Monaco and Liechtenstein. The then sovereigns of those two tiny realms were related to all the other sovereigns shown here, but in all cases remotely, enough so that originally I merely found and showed a relationship with each of the other sovereigns for the two Princes, with no attempt to establish the nearest, which I concluded would be an immense labour for no real gain. However, a considerable advance in the capabilities of the Genealogics relationships calculator meant that I could use it to find the actual nearest relationships of the Princes, and these are now shown in this part and in part three.

Especially following that improvement, I believe the three sets of charts together constitute probably the most complete survey ever undertaken of the relationships of the European sovereigns at this, the very end of the monarchical era which had its roots in the rubble of the Western Roman Empire, lasting near a millennium and a half before two shots on a Sarajevo Sunday morning brought it crashing down.

For an explanation of how to read the charts, click here.

Peter

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I: Relationships between the Catholic* sovereigns of Europe at 28 June 1914, the day of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Reigning monarchF Joseph IJohann IICarol I Alfonso XIIIFerdinand I Albert I MV E IIIAlbert I BM-A
Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary5c1r FCLW2c KLB2c1r LIIE2c FI2S5c1r WHRR1c2r MIB2c1r FI2S
2c1r KLB
3c1r C3S
Johann II of Liechtenstein5c1r FCLW5c FAOS6c2r JEIO5c1r JFT5c2r FCLW5c2r MCL5c1r FAOS5c2r MCL
Carol I of Romania2c KLB5c FAOS5c1r JWFO6c1r EISG
6c1r WGCR
5c1r CFS2c2r KLBU KAH3c2r LIXHD
Alfonso XIII of Spain2c1r LIIE6c2r JEIO5c1r JWFO2c2r FI2S8c1r ELF
8c1r FISN
8c1r MHC
3c LIIE3c1r FI2S3c CIVS
3c FNW
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria2c FI2S5c1r JFT6c1r EISG
6c1r WGCR
2c2r FI2S6c1r ADB
6c1r MNH
2c2r FI2S1c1r LPIF3c1r C3S
Albert I of Monaco5c1r WHRR5c2r FCLW5c1r CFS8c1r ELF
8c1r FISN
8c1r MHC
6c1r ADB
6c1r MNH
6c1r WHRR6c CFS7c1r EHRR
7c1r FCLW
Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy1c2r MIB5c2r MCL2c2r KLB3c LIIE2c2r FI2S6c1r WHRR3c1r FI2S
3c1r KLB
4c C3S
Albert I of Belgium2c1r FI2S
2c1r KLB
5c1r FAOSN KAH3c1r FI2S1c1r LPIF6c CFS3c1r FI2S
3c1r KLB
4c C3S
Marie-Adélaïde of Luxembourg3c1r C3S5c2r MCL3c2r LIXHD3c CIVS
3c FNW
3c1r C3S7c1r EHRR
7c1r FCLW
4c C3S4c C3S
*Excluding the Kings of Bavaria and Saxony
Peter

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Key:  
ADBC3SCFS
Ambroise de Bournonville, P of Bournonville (1)Carlos III of Spain (4)Carl Florentin, Wildgrave of Salm (2)
CIVSEHRREISG
Carlos IV of Spain (1)Ernst, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (1)Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1)
ELFFAOSFCLW
Egon VIII, Landgrave of Fürstenberg (1)Franz Albrecht, P of Oettingen-Spielberg (2)Ferdinand Carolus, C of Löwenstein-Wertheim (3)
FI2SFISNFNW
Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (6)Friedrich I, Wildgrave of Salm-Neufville (1)Friedrich Wilhelm, P of Nassau-Weilburg (1)
JEIOJFTJWFO
Joachim Ernst I, C of Oettingen-Oettingen (1)Johann Friedrich, C of Trautmansdorff (1)Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (1)
KAHKLBLIIE
Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern (1)Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (4)Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (2)
LIXHDLPIFMCL
Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1)Louis Philippe of France (1)M Carl, P of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (2)
MHCMIBMNH
Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1)Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (1)Moritz Heinrich, P of Nassau-Hadamar (1)
WGCRWHRR 
Wolfgang Georg, C of Castell-Remlingen (1)Wilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (2) 
Most connections formed:FI2S (6)C3S, KLB (4)FCLW (3)CFS, FAOS, LIIE, MCL, WHRR (2)Others (1)
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II: Relationships of the Protestant* and Orthodox† sovereigns of Europe at 28 June 1914, the day of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Reigning monarchWilhelm IIWilhelminaNicholas IIHaakon VIIGustaf VGeorge VChristian XConstantine IVidi I
Wilhelm II of Germany2c1r PIR2c1r FW3P2c1r FW3P3c1r KIIMS1c VGB2c1r FW3P2c1r FW3P2c FW3P
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands2c1r PIR2c1r PIR2c1r WIN1c1r WDN4c2r FLW
4c2r KMS
2c1r WIN2c1r PIR2c WDN
2c WIN
Nicholas II of Russia2c1r FW3P2c1r PIR1c CIXD4c FIIW
4c KIIMS
1c CIXD1c CIXD1c CIXD2c1r FW3P
Haakon VII of Norway2c1r FW3P2c1r WIN1c CIXD1c1r OISN1c CIXDB F8D1c CIXD1c1r FPN
Gustaf V of Sweden3c1r KIIMS1c1r WDN4c FIIW
4c KIIMS
1c1r OISN4c1r FLW
4c1r KMS
1c1r OISN3c FSA1c1r WDN
George V of Great Britain1c VGB4c2r FLW
4c2r KMS
1c CIXD1c CIXD4c1r FLW
4c1r KMS
1c CIXD1c CIXD4c KMS
Christian X of Denmark2c1r FW3P2c1r WIN1c CIXDB F8D1c1r OISN1c CIXD1c CIXD1c1r FPN
Constantine I of Greece2c1r FW3P2c1r PIR1c CIXD1c CIXD3c FSA1c CIXD1c CIXD2c1r FW3P
Vidi I of Albania2c FW3P2c WDN
2c WIN
2c1r FW3P1c1r FPN1c1r WDN4c KMS1c1r FPN2c1r FW3P
*Excluding sovereigns of the constituent realms of the German Empire  †Excluding the Kings of Serbia and Montenegro
Peter

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Key:  
CIXDF8DFIIW
Christian IX of Denmark (9)Frederik VIII of Denmark (1)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)
FLWFPNFSA
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales (2)Prince Frederik of the Netherlands (2)Friedrich, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1)
FW3PKIIMSKMS
Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia (7)Karl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (2)Duke Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (3)
OISNPIRVGB
Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (2)Paul I Petrovitch of Russia (3)Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland (1)
WDNWIN 
Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (3)Willem I of the Netherlands (3) 
Most connections formed:CIXD (9)FW3P (7)KMS, PIR, WDN, WIN (3)FLW, FPN, KIIMS, OISN (2)Others (1)
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III: Relationships between the Catholic* and the Protestant† and Orthodox*† sovereigns of Europe at 28 June 1914, the day of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Reigning monarchWilhelm II
of Germany
Wilhelmina
of the N'lands
Nicholas II
of Russia
Haakon VII
of Norway
Gustaf V
of Sweden
George V
of Gt Britain
Christian X
of Denmark
Constantine I
of Greece
Vidi I
of Albania
Franz Joseph I of AH3c1r LIXHD3c1r LIXHD2c1r KLB1c3r MIB1c2r MIB5c1r LRBW1c3r MIB3c2r LIXHD3c1r LIXHD
Johann II of Liechtenstein6c2r JEIO6c1r JEIO6c2r JEIO5c4r FCLW5c3r FCLW6c2r JEIO5c4r FCLW6c2r JEIO6c2r JEIO
Carol I of Romania3c1r LIXHD3c1r LIXHD2c1r KLB3c2r LIXHD4c1r CDB
4c1r C3ZB
4c1r L8HD
6c JBA
6c KIHC
3c2r LIXHD3c2r LIXHD3c1r LIXHD
Alfonso XIII of Spain4c FIIW3c FNW4c FIIW5c WIVO2c1r FNW5c1r GIIGB5c WIVO3c LDW3c FNW
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria2c1r FSC4c1r FAIIB4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c2r FAIIB2c1r FSC4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c1r FAIIB
Albert I of Monaco8c MHC8c ELF
8c MHC
8c PSH
8c MHC6c2r WHRR6c1r WHRR8c MHC6c2r WHRR8c MHC8c MHC
8c PSH
V Emanuele III of Italy4c1r LIXHD4c1r LIXHD3c1r KLB3c1r MIB3c MIB6c LRBW3c1r MIB5c LIXHD4c1r LIXHD
Albert I of Belgium2c1r FSC4c LIXHD3c KLB4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c1r LIXHD
4c2r FAIIB2c1r FSC4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c1r LIXHD
4c1r FAIIB
4c1r FJSC
4c1r LIXHD
4c LIXHD
M-Adélaïde of L'bourg3c1r KIIMS2c WDN2c1r WHC2c1r WHC1c1r WDN2c1r WHC2c1r WHC2c1r WHC2c WDN
*Excluding the Kings of Bavaria and Saxony  †Excluding sovereigns of the constituent realms of the German Empire  *†Excluding the Kings of Serbia and Montenegro
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Key:  
C3ZBCDBELF
Christian III, CP of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1)Claude de Beauharnais (1)Egon VIII, Landgrave of Fürstenberg (1)
FAIIBFCLWFIIW
F Albrecht II, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (11)Ferdinand Carolus, C of Löwenstein-Wertheim (3)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (2)
FJSCFNWFSC
Franz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (7)Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (3)Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (4)
GIIGBJBAJEIO
George II of Great Britain (1)J Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1)Joachim Ernst I, C of Oettingen-Oettingen (6)
KIHCKIIMSKLB
Karl I, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1)Karl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1)Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden (4)
L8HDLDWLIXHD
Ludwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1)Duke Ludwig of Württemberg (1)Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (19)
LRBWMHCMIB
Ludwig Rudolf, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (2)Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (6)Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (6)
PSHWDNWHC
Philipp Reinhard I, C of Solms-Hohensolms (2)Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (3)Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Cassel (5)
WHRRWIVO 
Wilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (3)Willem IV, Prince of Orange (2) 
Most connections formed:LIXHD (19)FAIIB (11)FJSC (7)JEIO (6)MHC (6)MIB, WHC (5)FSC, KLB (4)FCLW, FNW, WDN, WHRR (3)
FIIW, LRBW, PSH, WIVO (2)Others (1)
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Combined statistics 1914 (1) part one: individuals forming three or more connections
CodeNameTIIIIIICodeNameTIIIIII
LIXHDLudwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt201-19WDNWilhelm, Duke of Nassau6-33
FAIIBFerdinand Albrecht II, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel11--11WHCLandgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Cassel5--5
CIXDChristian IX of Denmark  9-9-WHRRWilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg52-3
KLBKarl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden  84-4C3SCarlos III of Spain44--
FJSCFranz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld  7--7FNWFriedrich Wilhelm, P of Nassau-Weilburg41-3
FW3PFriedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia  7-7-FSCFranz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld4--4
JEIOJoachim Ernst I, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen  71-6FIIWFriedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg3-12
MHCMoritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel  71-6KIIMSKarl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz3-21
MIBMaximilian I Joseph of Bavaria  71-6KMSDuke Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz3-3-
FCLWFerdinand Carolus, Count of Löwenstein-Wertheim  63-3PIRPaul I Petrovitch of Russia3-3-
FI2SFerdinando I of the Two Sicilies  66--WINWillem I of the Netherlands3-3-
Peter

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Combined statistics 1914 (1) part two: individuals forming under three connections
CodeNameTIIIIIICodeNameTIIIIII
CFSCarl Florentin, Wild- and Rhinegrave of Salm22--EISGErnst I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha11--
ELFEgon VIII, Count and Landgrave of Fürstenberg21-1F8DFrederik VIII of Denmark1-1-
FAOSFranz Albrecht, 1st Prince of Oettingen-Spielberg22--FISNFriedrich I, Wildgrave of Salm-Neufville11--
FLWFrederick Lewis, Prince of Wales2-2-FSAFriedrich, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg1-1-
FPNPrince Frederik of the Netherlands2-2-GIIGBGeorge II of Great Britain1--1
LIIELeopold II, Holy Roman Emperor22--JBAJ Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach1--1
LRBWLudwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel2--2JFTJohann Friedrich, Count of Trautmansdorff11--
MCLMaximilian Carl, P of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort22--JWFOJan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange11--
OISNOscar I of Sweden and Norway2-2-KAHKarl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern11--
PSHPhilipp Reinhard I, Count of Solms-Hohensolms2--2KIHCKarl I, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel1--1
WIVOWillem IV, Prince of Orange2--2L8HDLudwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt1--1
ADBAmbroise de Bournonville, 1st Prince of Bournonville11--LDWDuke Ludwig of Württemberg1--1
C3ZBChristian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld1--1LPIFLouis-Philippe I of France11--
CDBClaude de Beauharnais1--1MNHMoritz Heinrich, Prince of Nassau-Hadamar11--
CIVSCarlos IV of Spain11--VGBVictoria of Great Britain and Ireland1-1-
EHRRErnst, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg11--WGCRWolfgang Georg, Count of Castell-Remlingen11--
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A note on posterities

Of these 18 sovereigns, all bar Johann II of Liechtenstein, Carol I of Romania, Nicholas II of Russia, Marie-Adélaïde of Luxembourg and Vidi I of Albania have descendants living today. Johann II reigned on until 1929, completing a span of 70 years and 90 days on Liechtenstein’s throne. This was the second-longest reign of any European monarch, only Louis XIV’s having been longer. What is even more remarkable is that for this entire span he was an adult, having succeeded aged 18 years and 39 days, while Louis XIV came to his throne aged just four.

However, Johann II’s marriage being childless no one can claim descent from this record-breaking (for the longest reign with no minority) ruler. His successors were his likewise childless brother Franz I, then their great-nephew (first cousin twice removed through the line of succession, but also the grandson of their sister) Franz Joseph II, whose son Hans-Adam II is the present prince.

Carol I and his somewhat unusual wife Princess Elisabeth of Wied, an aunt of Vidi I, had just one child, a daughter who died aged three. There are many living descendants of his siblings, including former King Michael of the Romanians, King Philippe of Belgium and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg. No one needs telling about the fate of Nicholas II and his wife and children. Ample descent survives from his sisters Xenia and Olga, but due both to the operation of Russia’s semi-Salic succession law and the unequal marriages their children contracted it does not include any claimant to the defunct throne.

For reasons not known to me Marie-Adélaïde never married. Forced to abdicate after the war, she having been considered to have too friendly relations with the German occupiers of her small country, she entered a convent, then left it due to ill health, eventually dying of influenza in 1924, aged just 29. Her successor in Luxembourg was her sister Charlotte, whose grandson Henri sits on the Grand Ducal throne today.

Vidi I had two children, a son and a daughter, but neither of them had children in their turn. He never gave up his claim to the country he abandoned when war broke out, but few give any thought to the claims of the Princes of Wied, descendants of his elder brother, preferring the native Albanian Zogu dynasty, currently represented by titular king Leka II.

The posterity of the remaining monarchs includes nine of the current sovereigns, the exception being the previously-mentioned Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein. Gustaf V of Sweden and Albert I of Belgium can each claim two such among their descent, the current Swedish and Belgian sovereigns plus those of Denmark and Luxembourg respectively.

However, none of the 1914 sovereigns whose thrones are now defunct has any descendant reigning anywhere today, though Wilhelm II of Germany and Constantine I of Greece will have when the time comes for the Prince of Asturias, their great-great-grandson and great-grandson respectively, to succeed his father. As these two sovereigns do, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy and also Peter I of Serbia and Nikola I of Montenegro each have a descendant who claims his forebear’s throne (questionably so in the case of Vittorio Emanuele’s grandson and namesake) but, barring the happy event of a restoration, are unlikely to ever again be counted among the ancestors of a living monarch, as they could all once be.

Once they, like Franz Joseph I of Austria who has surviving posterity through his daughters and his granddaughter by his son (though due to semi-Salic law again the succession went to his great-nephew the Emperor Karl I, and is now claimed by the latter’s grandson), could reasonably have expected, some of them at least, to have descendants reigning in surviving monarchies through the processes of equal marriage. While this lasted a little longer than the pre-1914 monarchical order it is now every bit as extinct, and the marriage which brought those two descents to the Prince of Asturias was probably among the last of its kind.

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As a supplement to the above, here is a table showing the spread of descent from the leading ancestors (those forming five or more connections, but see the next paragraph) of these 1914 sovereigns among the monarchs of today. I did a similar table for the 1914 sovereigns themselves, but that proved too large to post so will not be seen. This table is perhaps not particularly meaningful without its companion, but I offer it anyway. The percentages are of the maximum possible figure for sovereigns descended from an ancestor and ancestors a sovereign descends from, 10 in both cases. The names down the side and codes along the top are linked to Wikipedia articles, to save people going back to the charts and keys if they can't remember who a particular abbreviation/code stands for.

Following the compilation of complete sets of nearest relationships for Albert I of Monaco and Johann II of Liechtenstein and the addition of the ancestors concerned to the statistics, the group forming five or more connections now also includes JEIO and MHC (7), FCLW (6) and WHRR (5). However, due to their remoteness compared to other ancestors I have not added them to this table. For the record, JEIO and MHC are ancestors of all current sovereigns, while FCLW and WHRR are of the Catholics apart from the King of Spain, and also of the Queen of Denmark and the Kings of Norway and Sweden.

2013 sovereigns: descents from the leading 1914 ancestors
SovereignLIXHDFAIIBCIXDKLBFJSCFW3PMIBFI2SWDNWHCT%
Henri10100
Philippe10100
M II   990
Harald V    880
C XVI G     770
JC I       550
W-A       550
Elizabeth II        440
H-A II        440
Albert II          220
Total  9  8  5  7  8  6  6  4  6  56464
%9080507080606040605064 
Peter

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If you wish to reply to this topic, you are invited to do so in the discussion thread at the top of the page. This thread has been locked, for reasons explained there.

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