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Peter

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[1280px-Wernerprokla]

The picture tells the story. On a dais erected in the famous Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, where once Louis XIV received ambassadors and dictated the destinies of Europe, stands the newly-proclaimed German Emperor, Wilhelm I, flanked to his right by his son the Crown Prince and to his left by his son-in-law, the Grand Duke of Baden. Below the dais, in front of the Emperor, are Otto von Bismarck, uniformed in gleaming white, and by his side Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, the political and military architects of France’s utter defeat and downfall and the King of Prussia’s elevation to German Emperor, first sovereign of a newly unified nation.

There was not however just one sovereign in the new Empire, but 22, including the Emperor over all, and also over the Free Cities and the newly-acquired Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine. Of these only the Emperor and the Kings of Saxony, Bavaria and Württemberg are treated of here. Elsewhere in Europe, the Grand Duke of Luxembourg was also the King of the Netherlands, and the Princes of Monaco and Liechtenstein will be ignored, like all sovereigns below the rank of king or queen regnant. There were fewer to ignore, and also two fewer to treat of, in consequence of earlier events, the Austro-Prussian war which had led to the abolition of inter alia the Kingdom of Hanover, and Italian unification which had extinguished the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies along with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchies of Modena and Parma.

Most recently and significantly, of course, the French Second Empire had fallen, and with it the monarchical era in France which dated with minor interruptions almost from the end of the Western Roman Empire. Napoléon III however would not have been appearing in the charts in any case. It's not that I don't regard him as a legitimate monarch; I do, he was elected by the French people and recognised by other nations as the sovereign of France. It's just that he was related to only one of his fellow monarchs (Carl XV of Sweden and Norway, who was his first cousin once removed).

The charts that follow, three in number, are happily able to show a rather fuller set of relationships for the kings, emperors and one regnant queen of the day. They follow the familiar pattern of covering first relationships between Protestant sovereigns, including the one Orthodox monarch, then between Catholic, and finally between the two sets. Two tables of combined statistics and a note on posterities follow the charts and keys, and the note on posterities is itself now followed by an addendum showing the relationships of Pedro II of Brazil with the European sovereigns of the day, added in June 2014. I had originally omitted Pedro II on the inarguable grounds that Brazil is not in Europe. However, it is equally inarguable that he was a member of a European dynasty, and could reasonably have been included on that basis. Both bases are now covered, as his relationships do not appear in the charts but do in the thread. His relationships also do not appear in the combined statistics, which are strictly concerned with the three charts, but he is now included with the other sovereigns in the note on posterities.

Before finally proceeding with the charts, I will point out an unusual feature of them in advance, first picked up on by Theodore Harvey. There were two father-son pairs reigning simultaneously in different countries at this time. Theodore asked whether this might have been the only time in history, and I think it possibly was. The table below shows all 14 other instances of this kind that I can think of; the third and fourth columns show the period during which both parent and child were reigning, and there is no overlap between them. There was a period during which Juana I of Castile/Spain had two sons reigning elsewhere, but that is not quite the same thing. At this point I will mention that no nearest common ancestor is shown in parent-child relationships, as that would seem absurd, and thus they do not appear in statistics.

ParentChild From To
Friedrich II, Holy Roman EmperorConrad II of Jerusalem12281250
Wenceslaus II of BohemiaWenceslaus of Hungary13011305
Heinrich VII, Holy Roman EmperorJohann of Bohemia13101313
Martin I of AragónMartin I of Sicily13961409
Ferran II of AragónJuana I of Castile15041516
Juana I of SpainKarl V, Holy Roman Emperor15191555
Juana I of SpainFerdinand I of Hungary and Bohemia15261555
Johan III of SwedenZygmunt III of Poland15871592
Felipe V of SpainCarlo VII/V of both Siciliea17341746
Carlos III of SpainFerdinando IV/III of both Sicilies17591788
João VI of PortugalPedro I of Brazil18221826
Pedro I of BrazilMaria II of Portugal18261831
Ludwig I of BavariaOtto of Greece18321848
Frederik VIII of DenmarkHaakon VII of Norway19061912

For an explanation of how to read the charts, click here.

Peter

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I: Relationships between the Protestant* sovereigns of Europe at the proclamation of the German Empire, 18th January 1871
Reigning monarchVictoriaWillem IIIAlexander IICarl XVWilhelm IGeorge IChristian IXKarl I
Victoria of Great Britain3c1r FAIIB
3c1r GIIGB
2c1r KMS4c2r JBA2c KMS3c1r FAIIB
3c1r FJSC
3c1r GIIGB
3c GIIGB2c1r FLW
Willem III of the Netherlands3c1r FAIIB
3c1r GIIGB
1c PIR4c C3ZB
4c L8HD
1c1r FWIIP4c FAIIB
4c GIIGB
3c1r GIIGB2c FIIW
Alexander II of Russia2c1r KMS1c PIR3c GWHDN FW3P4c CKL
4c FAIIB
4c1r GIGB2c FIIW
Carl XV of Sweden and Norway4c2r JBA4c C3ZB
4c L8HD
3c GWHD2c1r GWHD4c CKL4c2r JBA5c1r ABA
5c1r JBA
Wilhelm I of Germany2c KMS1c1r FWIIPU FW3P2c1r GWHD3c1r CKL
3c1r FAIIB
4c GIGB3c1r FAIIB
3c1r FWIP
George I of Greece3c1r FAIIB
3c1r FJSC
3c1r GIIGB
4c FAIIB
4c GIIGB
4c CKL
4c FAIIB
4c CKL3c1r CKL
3c1r FAIIB
Son4c FAIIB
4c GIIGB
Christian IX of Denmark3c GIIGB3c1r GIIGB4c1r GIGB4c2r JBA4c GIGBFather3c1r GIIGB
Karl I of Württemberg2c1r FLW2c FIIW2c FIIW5c1r ABA
5c1r JBA
3c1r FAIIB
3c1r FWIP
4c FAIIB
4c GIIGB
3c1r GIIGB
Peter

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Key:  
ABAC3ZBCKL
Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1)Christian III, C Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1)C Karl Reinhard, C of Leiningen-Dagsburg (3)
FAIIBFIIWFJSC
F Albrecht II, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (7)Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (2)Franz Josias, D of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1)
FLWFW3PFWIIP
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales (1)Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia (1)Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia (1)
FWIPGIGBGIIGB
Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia (1)George I of Great Britain (2)George II of Great Britain (7)
GWHDJBAKMS
Landgrave Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt (2)J Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (3)Duke Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (2)
L8HDPIR 
Ludwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1)Paul I Petrovitch of Russia (1) 
Most connections formed:FAIIB, GIIGB (7)JBA (3)CKL, FIIW, GIGB, GWHD, KMS (2)Others (1)
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II: Relationships between  the Catholic sovereigns of Europe at the proclamation of the German Empire,
18th January 1871
Reigning monarchFranz Joseph IVE IIJohann ILuís ILudwig IILéopold IIAmadeus I
Franz Joseph I of Austria2c FI2S
2c LIIE
2c1r FIE1c1r FIA1c1r MIB2c FI2S2c LIIE
Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy2c FI2S
2c LIIE
2c1r A3P
2c1r FIE
2c1r FI2S
2c1r LIIE
5c LRBW2c FI2SFather
Johann I of Saxony2c1r FIE2c1r A3P
2c1r FIE
2c2r FIE
2c2r FPP
4c1r LRBW2c1r FIE2c1r FIE
Luís I of Portugal1c1r FIA2c1r FI2S
2c1r LIIE
2c2r FIE
2c2r FPP
4c FAIIB1c1r FSC2c1r LIIE
Ludwig II of Bavaria1c1r MIB5c LRBW4c1r LRBW4c FAIIB3c1r FAIIB5c LRBW
Léopold II of Belgium2c FI2S2c FI2S2c1r FIE1c1r FSC3c1r FAIIB2c1r FI2S
Amadeus I of Spain2c LIIESon2c1r FIE2c1r LIIE5c LRBW2c1r FI2S
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Key:  
A3PFAIIBFI2S
August III of Poland (1)Ferdinand Albrecht II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (2)Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (5)
FIAFIEFPP
Franz I of Austria (1)Franz I, Holy Roman Emperor (5)Filippo, Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (1)
FSCLIIELRBW
Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1)Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (4)Ludwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (3)
MIB  
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (1)  
Most connections formed:FI2S, FIE (5)LIIE (4)LRBW (3)FAIIB (2)Others (1)
Peter

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III: Relationships of the Protestant* with the Catholic sovereigns of Europe at the proclamation of the German Empire,
18th January 1871
Reigning monarchFranz Joseph I
of Austria
V E II
of Italy
Johann I
of Saxony
Luís I
of Portugal
Ludwig II
of Bavaria
Léopold II
of Belgium
Amadeus I
of Spain
Victoria of Great Britain4c1r LRBW4c1r LRBW4c LRBW1c1r FSC2c2r KMS1c FSC4c1r LRBW
Willem III of the Netherlands3c LIXHD5c LRBW4c1r LRBW4c FAIIB2c FWIIP3c1r FAIIB5c LRBW
Alexander II of Russia3c LIXHD5c LRBW4c1r LRBW4c FAIIB2c FWIIP3c1r FAIIB5c LRBW
Carl XV of Sweden and Norway1c1r MIB5c1r WHRR5c1r PEP6c PEP2c MIB5c2r EISG
5c2r WGCR
6c PEP
6c WHRR
Wilhelm I of Germany2c1r LIXHD4c1r LRBW4c LRBW3c1r FAIIB1c1r FWIIP3c FAIIB4c1r LRBW
George I of Greece5c LRBW5c LRBW4c1r LRBW4c FAIIB
4c FJSC
4c CKL
4c FAIIB
3c1r FAIIB
3c1r FJSC
5c LRBW
Christian IX of Denmark4c2r JBA
4c2r KIHC
6c F3D
6c GBL
5c1r F3D
5c1r GBL
5c1r GAM4c1r GIGB5c GAM6c1r F3D
6c1r FVP
6c1r GBL
6c1r JEIO
6c1r WVHC

Karl I of Württemberg4c1r JWFO5c LRBW4c1r LRBW4c FAIIB4c FAIIB
4c FWIP
3c1r FAIIB5c LRBW
*Including one Orthodox †The relationship of Christian IX of Denmark and Amadeus I of Spain via F3D is linked separately to their other relationships. Clicking on 6c1r F3D will produce a graphic of that relationship only, while clicking on any of the four others will result in a graphic showing instances of all four.
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Key:  
CKLEISGF3D
C Karl Reinhard, C of Leiningen-Dagsburg (1)Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1)Frederik III of Denmark and Norway (3)
FAIIBFJSCFSC
F Albrecht II, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (12)Franz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (2)Franz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (2)
FVPFWIIPFWIP
Friedrich V, Elector Palatine (1)Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia (3)Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia (1)
GAMGBLGIGB
Gustav Adolf, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (2)Georg, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (3)George I of Great Britain (1)
JBAJEIOJWFO
J Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1)Joachim Ernst I, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen (1)Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (1)
KIHCKMSLIXHD
Karl I, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1)Duke Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1)Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (3)
LRBWMIBPEP
Ludwig Rudolf, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (20)Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria (2)Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (3)
WGCRWHRRWVHC
Wolfgang Georg, Count of Castell-Remlingen (1)Wilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg (2)Wilhelm V, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1)
Most connections formed:LRBW (20)FAIIB (12)F3D, FWIIP, GBL, LIXHD, PEP (3)FJSC, FSC, GAM, MIB, WHRR (2)Others (1)
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Combined statistics 1871 part one: Individuals forming three or more connections
CodeNameTIIIIIICodeNameTIIIIII
LRBWLudwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel23-320F3DFrederik III of Denmark and Norway3-- 3
FAIIBFerdinand Albrecht II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel217212FJSCFranz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld31- 2
GIIGBGeorge II of Great Britain  77--FSCFranz, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld3-1 2
FI2SFerdinando I of the Two Sicilies  5-5-GBLGeorg, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg3-- 3
FIEFranz I, Holy Roman Emperor  5-5-GIGBGeorge I of Great Britain32- 1
CKLChristian Karl Reinhard, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg  43- 1PEPPhilipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine3-- 3
FWIIPFriedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia  41- 3KMSDuke Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz32- 1
JBAJohann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach  43- 1LIXHDLudwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt3-- 3
LIIELeopold II, Holy Roman Emperor  4-4-MIBMaximilian I Joseph of Bavaria3-1 2
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Combined statistics 1871 part two: Individuals forming under three connections
CodeNameTIIIIIICodeNameTIIIIII
FIIWFriedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg22--FPPFilippo, Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla1-1-
FWIPFriedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia21-1FVPFriedrich V, Elector Palatine1--1
GAMGustav Adolf, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow2--2FW3PFriedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia11--
GWHDLandgrave Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt22--JEIOJoachim Ernst I, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen1--1
WHRRWilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg2--2JWFOJan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange1--1
A3PAugust III of Poland1-1-KIHCKarl I, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel1--1
ABAAlbrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach11--L8HDLudwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt11--
C3ZBChristian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld11--PIRPaul I Petrovitch of Russia11--
EISGErnst I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha1--1WGCRWolfgang Georg, Count of Castell-Remlingen1--1
FIAFranz I of Austria1-1-WVHCWilhelm V, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel1--1
FLWFrederick Lewis, Prince of Wales11--      
Peter

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A note on posterities

Of these 15 sovereigns, two were childless (Ludwig II of Bavaria and Karl I of Württemberg, the former in fact never marrying) and the posterity of one (Luís I of Portugal) is entirely extinct. The other 12 all have living descendants today, though only five, Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland, Willem III of the Netherlands, Carl XV of Sweden and Norway, Wilhelm I of Germany and Christian IX of Denmark, can claim present-day sovereigns among them.

George I of Greece will be added to their number when the British sovereign changes, and will in fact be male-line ancestor of what might but probably won’t be called the Second House of Windsor. He is also an ancestor of the Prince of Asturias, so has two crowned descendants to look forward to.

Victoria’s tally includes Elizabeth II of Great Britain, of course, Margrethe II of Denmark, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden (twice), Juan Carlos I of Spain and Harald V of Norway. Only Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands descends from Willem III. Carl XV is an ancestor of Margrethe II, Harald V, Henri of Luxembourg and Philippe of Belgium, notably omitting the Swedish monarch.

However Wilhelm I is an ancestor of Carl XVI Gustaf, and likewise of Margrethe II. Like George I he is an ancestor of the Prince of Asturias too, twice in fact, so will one day have a Spanish monarch among his descendants. Finally, Christian IX’s count equals Victoria’s, with Elizabeth II, Margrethe II, Harald V, Henri and Philippe all descendants, and will pass it when there is a new Spanish sovereign, as yet again the Prince of Asturias descends from him.

That leaves six more sovereigns to be covered. Alexander II of Russia’s best hope of a current crowned descendant lies, I would say, in a restoration in Romania or Serbia, both King Michael and Crown Prince Alexander II being descendants. Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary I don’t see a tremendous potential; he has a very extensive descent (some of them descendants also of Léopold II of Belgium, whose chances I rate similarly low), but none among them with a throne in even slim prospect. Léopold II is also an ancestor of the present Bonaparte claimants, but I wouldn’t be putting money on a Third Empire.

The hopes of both Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and Johann I of Saxony rest on the return of the Italian monarchy (either claimant for Vittorio Emanuele II, only the senior albeit disqualified line for Johann I), a very slim chance indeed, though a Bulgarian restoration, a marginally better prospect, would also do the trick for them both. Amadeus I would not be helped by Bulgaria, but could be by Italy. He is in the reverse position to Johann I, as only the Aosta line will do for him.

As it happens the children of Princess Astrid of Belgium descend through their father from all three of Vittorio Emanuele II, Johann I and Amadeus I. Even better, at one time the accession some day of her son Amedeo looked very likely. However the marriage of King Philippe, Princess Astrid’s older brother, and the births of his four children brought that prospect to an end.

I will conclude this note with a brief survey of the posterity of Pedro II, last Emperor of Brazil, whose relationships with his European cousins are now detailed in the post below. His two sons died young but his two daughters both lived to adulthood, married and had children themselves. Descent survives today from both the daughters, that of the elder, Isabel, including an illustrious list of claimants and heirs.

The two pretenders to Brazil, the Orléans pretender to France, the Portuguese pretender Dom Duarte and the sons of Crown Prince Alexander II of Serbia are all of Isabel’s line. There is perhaps more hope that Prince Peter, the eldest of Crown Prince Alexander’s sons, might one day be Peter III, King of Serbia, than there is for the restoration of the other thrones Pedro II's descendants through Isabel lay claim to. As mentioned above, that would also do the trick for Alexander II of Russia, and the two Emperors, Pedro II and Alexander II, both remarkable rulers of vast lands, can reasonably be regarded as joint favourites after the sure thing George I of Greece in my imaginary race for a crowned descendant today among these monarchs of 1871.

Peter

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Relationships of Pedro II of Brazil with the European sovereigns at the proclamation of the German Empire, 18th January 1871
Reigning monarchVictoria
of Great Britain
F Joseph I
of Austria
Willem III
of the Netherlands
V Emanuele II
of Italy
Johann I
of Saxony
Alexander II
of Russia
Carl XV
of Sweden & Norway
Wilhelm I
of Germany
Pedro II of Brazil4c1r LRBW1c FIA5c LRBW2c FI2S
2c LIIE
2c1r FIE
2c1r FPP
5c LRBW5c1r PEP4c1r LRBW
Reigning monarchLuís I
of Portugal
George I
of Greece
Christian IX
of Denmark
Ludwig II
of Bavaria
Karl I
of Württemberg
Léopold II
of Belgium
Amadeus I
of Spain
 
Pedro II of BrazilU PIEB5c LRBW6c1r F3D
6c1r FVP
6c1r GBL

6c1r JEIO
6c1r JGIS
6c1r WVHC

5c LRBW5c LRBW2c FI2S2c LIIE 
The first instance of Pedro II's name is linked to his Genealogics ancestry, and the second to his Wikipedia article 
Key:  
F3DFI2SFIA
Frederik III of Denmark and Norway (1)Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies (2)Franz I of Austria (1)
FIEFPPFVP
Franz I, Holy Roman Emperor (1)Filippo, Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (1)Friedrich V, Elector Palatine (1)
GBLJEIOJGIS
Georg, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1)Joachim Ernst I, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen (1)Johann Georg I, Elector of Saxony (1)
LIIELRBWPEP
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (2)Ludwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (7)Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (1)
PIEBWVHC 
Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (1)Wilhelm V, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1) 
Most connections formed:LRBW (7)FI2S, LIIE (2)Others (1)
Peter

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If you wish to reply to this topic, you are invited to do so in the discussion thread at the top of the page. This thread has been locked, for reasons explained there.

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