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Peter

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The Congress of Vienna was an unprecedented event; representatives of all the European nations meeting together in one place to resolve the (very great, following the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire) issues of the day, rather than all being done by correspondence between individual nations. It did resolve those issues, to the satisfaction of most if, inevitably, not all, and managed to establish a European political order stable enough that it would be 99 years before general war broke out again.

The political map of Europe today has been reshaped by subsequent events, but is still underpinned by the dispositions made at the Congress and set out in painstaking detail in its Final Act, signed nine days before Napoléon I’s also final defeat at Waterloo. And of course the model established in Vienna in 1814-15 has been followed many times since; it could well be argued that the United Nations is a spiritual descendant of the Congress, apart from the numerous such meetings, these days usually attended by heads of government rather than plenipotentiaries, which have taken place over the nearly two centuries since the Final Act was signed.

Three charts follow showing the relationships of the sovereigns of the day, the representatives of eight of whom were the Act's signatoriesThe split is Catholics with Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox with the same, and then the two sets with each other. Two tables of combined statistics and a note on posterities complete the thread.

An interesting feature of the relationships can be seen in the three keys and the tables of combined statistics. There is no overlap whatsoever, each key is unique. Catholics are closely related through other Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox are closely related through other Protestants (in one case through the Catholic FIIW, but see below for him), and the two sets are for the most part distantly related through Protestants. As far as I can see the only Catholic in the key for the third chart is ELF, Egon VIII of Fürstenberg, though I am not quite certain of the religious affiliation of one or two of the more obscure names.

Protestant princesses were it seemed more willing than Catholics to convert, or at least allow their children to be brought up in the other faith. There was also conversion by princes, whether opportunistic, as with more than one Wittelsbach who read a family tree and saw a good chance of the inheritance of Catholic family lands, or sincere, as with Duke Johann Friedrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who is responsible for the prominence in the key of his father Georg (GBL). Another opportunistic conversion was that of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and thus heir of a line of great Protestant champions, who became Catholic in a successful pursuit of the Polish crown. This act ultimately brought much Protestant blood into senior Catholic lines through his son August III of Poland, A3P in the first chart key.

And yet another was that of Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg. At a time when he had no immediate prospect of succeeding to the Duchy he became Catholic in order to further his career in the Austrian military, and married appropriately. This did not result in Protestant blood entering Catholic lines, but rather the reverse. His son Friedrich II Eugen (FIIW, mentioned above) was raised Catholic, but married a Protestant and agreed, Protestantism being the majority religion of Wurttemberg, to his wife raising their children in her faith. It was through him that the Catholic Egon VIII had descendants among the Protestant sovereigns of the day.

I will conclude with one more example, this one of a Protestant princess marrying (and indeed becoming) Catholic. Georg II of Hesse-Darmstadt, GIIHD in the third chart key, was very much a Lutheran. He nevertheless allowed his daughter Elisabeth Amalie to marry the Catholic Philipp Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg (PEP), a widower nearly 20 years her senior who was expected to eventually succeed as Elector Palatine, and did. Despite the disparity in their ages the marriage was extremely happy, and the couple had no fewer than 17 children.

An exceptionally beautiful woman, Elisabeth Amalie passed on her looks to her daughters, which no doubt assisted in the grand marriages made for them, one becoming Empress, two more becoming Queens of Spain and Portugal respectively, and a fourth Duchess of Parma (yet a fifth daughter, Hedwig Elisabeth, married Jakub, Prince Sobieski, and was the grandmother of Charles Edward Stuart and Cardinal York). The one who was Queen of Spain had the misfortune that her husband was Carlos II, but the others had issue and their descent is widespread today, and indeed was even then, another means of tying Protestant and Catholic sovereigns together.

An explanation of how to read the charts can be found here.

Peter

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I: Relationships between the Catholic sovereigns of Europe at 9th June 1815, the date of the signing of the Final Act of the
Congress of Vienna
Reigning MonarchF III/IVMaria IFranz ILouis XVIIIV Emanuele IMaximilian IF August IFernando VII
Ferdinando III/IV of both Sicilies1c FVSU C3S1c A3P1c FVS3c PEP1c A3PU C3S
Maria I of Portugal1c FVS1c1r FVS2c1r LDV
2c1r LEI
1c FVS3c PEP2c1r LEI1c1r FVS
Franz I of AustriaN C3S1c1r FVS1c1r A3P1c1r FVS3c1r PEP1c1r A3P1c C3S
Louis XVIII of France1c A3P2c1r LDV
2c1r LEI
1c1r A3P2c1r LDV
2c1r VAIIS
3c1r PEP1c A3P1c1r A3P
1c1r LXVF
Vittorio Emanuele I of Sardinia1c FVS1c FVS1c1r FVS2c1r LDV
2c1r VAIIS
3c PEP
3c WHRR
3c FEB1c1r FVS
Maximilian I of Bavaria3c PEP3c PEP3c1r PEP3c1r PEP3c PEP
3c WHRR
3c1r PEP3c1r PEP
Friedrich August I of Saxony1c A3P2c1r LEI1c1r A3P1c A3P3c FEB3c1r PEP1c1r A3P
Fernando VII of SpainN C3S1c1r FVS1c C3S1c1r A3P
1c1r LXVF
1c1r FVS3c1r PEP1c1r A3P
Peter

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Key:  
A3PC3SFEB
August III of Poland (7)Carlos III of Spain (3)Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria (1)
FVSLDVLEI
Felipe V of Spain (7)Louis, Dauphin of Viennois (2)Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (2)
LXVFPEPVAIIS
Louis XV of France (1)Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (7)Vittorio Amadeo II of Sardinia (1)
WHRR  
Wilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg (1) 
Most connections formed:A3P, FVS, PEP (7)C3S (3)LDV, LEI (2)Others (1)
Peter

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II: Relationships between the Protestant* sovereigns of Europe at 9th June 1815, the date of the signing of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna
Reigning MonarchGeorge IIIF Wilhelm IIIAlexander IFriedrich IFrederik VIKarl XIIIWillem I
George III of Great Britain2c1r GIGB2c2r GIGB2c1r GIGBU FLW2c GIGB1c1r GIIGB
Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia2c1r GIGB2c1r FWIP2c FWIP3c GIGB1c1r FWIP1c PAP
Alexander I of Russia2c2r GIGB2c1r FWIPN FIIW3c1r GIGB1c2r FWIP
1c2r PCH
2c1r FWIP
Friedrich I of Württemberg2c1r GIGB2c FWIPU FIIW3c GIGB1c1r FWIP2c FWIP
Frederik VI of DenmarkN FLW3c GIGB3c1r GIGB3c GIGB2c1r GIGB2c GIIGB
Karl XIII of Sweden and Norway2c GIGB1c1r FWIP1c2r FWIP
1c2r PCH
1c1r FWIP2c1r GIGB1c1r FWIP
Willem I of the Netherlands1c1r GIIGB1c PAP2c1r FWIP2c FWIP2c GIIGB1c1r FWIP
*including one Orthodox       
Peter

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Key:  
FIIWFLWFWIP
Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1)Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales (1)Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia (8)
GIGBGIIGBPAP
George I of Great Britain (8)George II of Great Britain (2)Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia (1)
PCH  
Prince Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp (1)  
Most connections formed:FWIP, GIGB (8)GIIGB (2)Others (1)
Peter

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III: Relationships between the Catholic and the Protestant* sovereigns of Europe at 9th June 1815, the date of the signing of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna
Reigning MonarchGeorge III
of Great Britain
F Wilhelm III
of Prussia
Alexander I
of Russia
Friedrich I
of Württemberg
Frederik VI
of Denmark
Karl XIII
of Sweden
Willem I
of the Netherlands
Ferdinando III/IV of both Sicilies4c GBL4c1r E3W
4c1r GBL
4c1r GIIHD
4c E3W3c1r E3W4c1r F3D
4c1r GBL
3c1r F3D4c1r E3W
4c1r GBL
Maria I of Portugal4c1r JGIS4c1r GIIHD5c1r JGIS5c1r LVHD
5c1r PLN
5c JGIS4c1r JGIS5c1r LVHD
Franz I of Austria4c1r FVP
4c1r GBL
4c1r JEIO
3c LRBW4c1r E3W3c2r E3W5c FVP
5c F3D
5c GBL
5c JEIO
3c2r F3D3c LRBW
Louis XVIII of France4c GBL4c1r E3W
4c1r GBL
4c E3W3c1r E3W4c1r F3D
4c1r GBL
3c1r F3D4c1r E3W
4c1r GBL
Vittorio Emanuele I of Sardinia4c1r JGIS4c1r GIIHD5c1r ELF
5c1r JGIS
5c1r MHC
5c ELF
5c MHC
5c JGIS4c1r JGIS5c MHC
Maximilian I of Bavaria4c1r JGIS1c1r C3ZB4c1r JKSK4c JKSK4c1r WGCR4c1r JAHG
4c1r JGIS
5c MHC
Friedrich August I of Saxony4c GBL4c1r E3W
4c1r GBL
4c E3W3c1r E3W4c1r F3D
4c1r GBL
3c1r F3D4c1r E3W
4c1r GBL
Fernando VII of Spain4c1r GBL5c E3W
5c GBL
5c GIIHD
4c1r E3W3c2r E3W5c F3D
5c GBL
3c2r F3D5c E3W
5c GBL
*including one Orthodox       
Peter

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Key:  
C3ZBE3WELF
Christian III, C Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1)Eberhard III, Duke of Württemberg (18)Egon VIII, Count and Landgrave of Fürstenberg (2)
F3DFVPGBL
Frederik III of Denmark and Norway (10)Friedrich V, Elector Palatine (2)Georg, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (18)
GIIHDJAHGJEIO
Georg II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (4)Johann Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1)Joachim Ernst I, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen (2)
JGISJKSKLRBW
Johann Georg I, Elector of Saxony (10)Johann Kasimir, Count of Salm-Kyrburg (2)Ludwig Rudolf, D of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (2)
LVHDMHCPLN
Ludwig V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (2)Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (4)Philipp Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1)
WGCR  
Wolfgang Georg, Count of Castell-Remlingen (1)  
Most connections formed:E3W, GBL (18)F3D, JGIS (10)GIIHD, MHC (4)ELF, FVP, JEIO, JKSK, LRBW, LVHD (2)Others (1)
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Combined statistics 1815 part one: Individuals forming three or more connections
CodeNameTIIIIIICodeNameTIIIIII
E3WEberhard III, Duke of Württemberg18--18A3PAugust III of Poland77--
GBLGeorg, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg18--18FVSFelipe V of Spain77--
F3DFrederik III of Denmark and Norway10--10PEPPhilipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine77--
JGISJohann Georg I, Elector of Saxony10--10GIIHDGeorg II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt4--4
FWIPFriedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia  8-8-MHCMoritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel4--4
GIGBGeorge I of Great Britain  8-8-C3SCarlos III of Spain33--
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Combined statistics 1815 part two: Individuals forming under three connections
CodeNameTIIIIIICodeNameTIIIIII
ELFEgon VIII, Count and Landgrave of Fürstenberg2--2FIIWFriedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg1-1-
FVPFriedrich V, Elector Palatine2--2FLWFrederick Lewis, Prince of Wales1-1-
GIIGBGeorge II of Great Britain2-2-JAHGJohann Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp1--1
JEIOJoachim Ernst I, Count of Oettingen-Oettingen2--2LXVFLouis XV of France11--
JKSKJohann Kasimir, Count of Salm-Kyrburg2--2PAPPrince August Wilhelm of Prussia1-1-
LDVLouis, Dauphin of Viennois22--PCHPrince Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp1-1-
LEILeopold I, Holy Roman Emperor22--PLNPhilipp Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg1--1
LRBWLudwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel2--2VAIISVittorio Amadeo II of Sardinia11--
LVHDLudwig V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt2--2WGCRWolfgang Georg, Count of Castell-Remlingen1--1
C3ZBChristian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld1--1WHRRWilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg11--
FEBFerdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria11--      
Peter

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A note on posterities

Of the fifteen sovereigns treated of in these charts Louis XVIII never had any children, Friedrich August I had only a daughter, who lived to be 80 but never married, and Alexander I, Frederik VI and Carl XIII all had children both legitimate and illegitimate but the former died young or no posterity survives from them, and while both Alexander I and Frederik VI have living descendants today through their illegitimate children (those of the latter also preserving the blood of his father Christian VII, which did not run in the veins of his only sibling Louise) they do not extend to present-day royalty. I am not sure whether descent survives from Carl XIII’s illegitimate son, but in any case ditto.

Descent from the other ten sovereigns however is widespread today, and all of them have at least one descendant presently occupying a European throne. Conversely, all the current monarchs except the Prince of Monaco are descended from at least one of the ten. To no one’s surprise, I will show just who is descended from whom with a table:

2013 sovereigns: descents from 1815 sovereigns with legitimate posterities
SovereignF III/IVGeorge IIIMaria IFranz IFW IIIVE IMaximilian IFriedrich IFernando VIIWillem ITotal
Henri   7
Philippe    6
Margrethe II     5
Harald V     5
C XVI G      4
Hans-Adam II      4
Juan Carlos I       3
W-A       3
Elizabeth II         1
Total4531616615 

It will be seen that Grand Duke Henri is the clear leader in the 1815 stakes, with 7/10. Can anyone outside the ranks of the current sovereigns top that? Has anyone got all ten, perhaps? I really don't think so, but there are people with more of these descents than Grand Duke Henri has. Among them are thirteen of his nephews and nieces, plus his one great-nephew. His sisters married respectively an Austrian Archduke and a Prince of Liechtenstein, both of them descended from the Emperor Franz I, elevating their children's (and the one grandchild's) score to eight, a score which Princess Astrid of Belgium's children can also claim. Grand Duke Henri's next brother Prince Jean has children by his first wife, but she is without royal descents so no change for them. His youngest brother Prince Guillaume also married non-royally, to a Mlle Sibilla Weiler, which does not sound promising. 

Her paternal grandfather came from a distinguished Alsatian-Jewish bloodline. Her paternal grandmother was Maniot Greek, a very interesting thing to be as it makes her a direct descendant of the ancient Spartans. Her maternal grandfather was from the Papal nobility and had some Savoy-Carignano royal blood, though nothing that helps with this. Plus was a descendant of six different Popes and of Hernán Cortés. Just in case more variety was needed, his mother came from a wealthy New England family. An impressive and fascinatingly diverse ancestry, but we are still not getting anywhere. Well, Sibilla Weiler's maternal grandmother was Infanta Beatriz of Spain, a daughter of Alfonso XIII and so descended from George III through her mother and Fernando VII through her father. The overall winners, then, are the children of the elder Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, 9/10.

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