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Peter

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Although it can no way be doubted but that his Majesty's right and title to his crowns and kingdoms is and was every way completed by the death of his most royal father of glorious memory, without the ceremony or solemnity of a proclamation, yet since proclamations in such cases have been always used, to the end that all good subjects might upon this occasion testify their duty and respects, and since the armed violence and other the calamities of these many years last past have hitherto deprived us of any such opportunity wherein we might express our loyalty and allegiance to his Majesty, we, therefore, the Lords and Commons now assembled in Parliament, together with the lord mayor, aldermen and commons of the city of London and other freemen of this kingdom now present, do, according to our duty and allegiance, heartily, joyfully and unanimously acknowledge and proclaim that immediately upon the decease of our late Sovereign Lord King Charles the imperial crown of the realm of England, and of all the kingdoms, dominions and rights belonging to the same, did by inheritance, birthright and lawful and undoubted succession descend and come to his most excellent Majesty Charles the Second, as being lineally, justly and lawfully next heir of the blood royal of this realm, and that by the goodness and providence of Almighty God he is of England, Scotland, France and Ireland the most potent, mighty and undoubted king, Defender of the Faith, &c. And thereunto we most humbly and faithfully do submit and oblige ourselves, our heirs and posterities for ever.

Dated the 8th day of May 1660

The above is the text of a proclamation by both Houses of Parliament that indeed the dark years of Commonwealth tyranny were at an end, and the rightful king restored to his thrones, as the liberties of the peoples of these islands were also restored. It is in view of its wording that Charles II does not rank last among the sovereigns in the chart that follows, his reign being dated from the moment the axe fell on his father’s neck.

And what of those sovereigns and their relationships? They are interestingly different to those of later years. As indeed the chart is, being singular. The pattern is Catholics very closely related to each other, Protestants very closely related to each other, and Protestants and Catholics not all that far apart, and not just Charles II with his Catholic mother either. We are back before the period when Protestant blood was widespread in Catholic lines, and in the key it will be seen that there are only two Protestant ancestors, the rest being Catholic apart from the two Russian princes, whom I will get to.

An exception to this pattern is Afonso VI of Portugal, second of a new dynasty and with little royal ancestry, his descents being mainly from Iberian and specifically Spanish nobility. His relationships with his fellow Catholics therefore tend to be quite remote, and with Protestants remoter still. However, those in the chart are not example relationships but verifiably the nearest, with one exception. This is his relationship to Frederik III of Denmark and Norway, calculated through Federico II of Sicily (F2S). I believe this to be the nearest, but, although I checked very thoroughly, its extreme remoteness makes certainty impossible. It is therefore treated as an example and excluded from statistics, as are all the relationships shown for Alexis of Russia.

Also second of a new dynasty, Alexis was linked in blood to the other sovereigns of the day only through medieval marriages of Rurikid princesses to monarchs of other lands. The relationships are thus naturally remote, but that is far from the only problem with them. All are through Mikhail, Grand Prince of Kiev (MGK), more generally known as Saint Mikhail of Chernigov, and Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (MIGK). The chains of descent from the two princes are authentic for the other sovereigns, but for Alexis questionable.

Economic collapse and the destruction of records following repeated Mongol invasions meant that the exact genealogies of some princely families were lost. They knew they were Rurikids and princes, but were unable to say exactly how. So genealogies were manufactured, and Saint Mikhail of Chernigov usually seemed to be the chosen starting point. He had only two children known to history and records of their descendants had been inconveniently well preserved, so several more children were simply invented and descent traced from them.

There is no reason to doubt that these families were Rurikids as they claimed, and even sprung from a prince called Michael, just not that one. There are various other princes of that name from around the time, and one or some of these will have been the real progenitor/s of the families. We just don't know which one or ones, or what the chains of descent might have been. All the Rurikid descents of Alexis I pass through this sort of family, including those from Mstislav I, which come through the wife of Mikhail of Chernigov.

The actual relationships shown therefore had to be based on these invented genealogies, and likely did not exist. All they are really demonstrating is that all the other sovereigns had Rurikid ancestry and, since there is good reason to believe Tsar Alexis did too, there were relationships of some sort between him and his fellow monarchs.

The thread as originally posted contained only a version of this introductory note (briefer and lacking the above explanation, since I did not then understand how problematic these relationships are), the chart itself, its key and statistical summary and a note on posterities. These all still follow, and constitute the core of the thread. There are now also several additional charts and associated matter, forming an addendum which I will explain in its own introductory note. But first and at last, let us move to the relationships of the sovereigns reigning on that happy day that the return of the king was proclaimed.

For an explanation of how to read the charts, click here.

Peter

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I: Relationships between the European sovereigns at the proclamation of the Restoration of Charles II, 8th May 1660
Reigning MonarchFelipe IVLouis XIVAlexis IFrederik IIIJan II KCharles IIAfonso VILeopold IKarl XI
Felipe IV of SpainU F3S9c3r MGK4c1r KIVP1c KIIA2c1r FIH3c1r MIPAU F3S2c2r FIH
Louis XIV of FranceN F3S9c4r MGK5c KIVP1c1r KIIA1c HIVF4c MIPA1c F3S3c1r FIH
Alexis I Mikhailovitch of Russia9c3r MGK9c4r MGK9c4r MGK9c3r MGK9c4r MGK13c5r MIGK9c4r MGK9c5r MGK
Frederik III of Denmark and Norway4c1r KIVP5c KIVP9c4r MGK3c2r KIVP1c1r FIID9c2r F2S4c1r HDN1c2r FIID
Jan II Kazimierz of Poland1c KIIA1c1r KIIA9c3r MGK3c2r KIVP2c1r FIH4c1r FIIA1c1r KIIA2c1r GIS
Charles II of England and Scotland2c1r FIH1c HIVF9c4r MGK1c1r FIID2c1r FIH5c FIIA3c FIH2c1r FIID
Afonso VI of Portugal3c1r MIPA4c MIPA13c5r MIGK9c2r F2S4c1r FIIA5c FIIA4c MIPA5c1r FIIA
Leopold I, Holy Roman EmperorN F3S1c F3S9c4r MGK4c1r HDN1c1r KIIA3c FIH4c MIPA3c1r FIH
Karl XI of Sweden2c2r FIH3c1r FIH9c5r MGK1c2r FIID2c1r GIS2c1r FIID5c1r FIIA3c1r FIH
Peter

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Reply with quote  #3 
Key:  
F2SF3SFIH
Federico II of SicilyFelipe III of Spain (3)Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (6)
FIIAFIIDGIS
Ferrando II of Aragón (3)Frederik II of Denmark and Norway (3)Gustav I of Sweden (1)
HDNHIVFKIIA
Hans of Denmark and Norway (1)Henri IV of France (1)Karl II, Archduke of Austria (3)
KIVPMGKMIGK
Kazimierz IV of Poland (3)Mikhail, Grand Prince of KievMstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev
MIPA  
Manoel I of Portugal (3)  
Relationships through F2S, MGK and MIGK are treated as examples and excluded from statistics. See the introductory note for a full explanation.
Most connections formed:FIH (6)F3S, FIIA, FIID, KIIA, KIVP, MIPA (3)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #4 

A note on posterities

Rather than do a table, I will narrate through the posterities of these sovereigns. The only one of them who is an ancestor of all those of the present day (excluding the Prince of Monaco from discussion) is Frederik III. Of the others, Afonso VI had no children (being in fact divorced for impotence by his wife) and Jan II Kasimierz had none that survived. Charles II as everyone knows had plenty, but not by his wife, and there has never been a sovereign descended from him, though there will be. All the Catholic sovereigns are descended from Felipe IV, Louis XIV and Leopold I, none of the Protestants are.

The monarchs of Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden are descended from Alexis and Karl XI, none of the others are, though in the next generation the Princes of Wales and Asturias share these descents. Karl XI, himself an only child, had a childless son, Karl XII, and two daughters, Hedwig Sophia and Ulrika Eleonore. The second managed to obtain the succession to her brother but was herself childless. The first had only one child, Karl Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he only one child, Emperor Peter III of Russia, and he only one child that survived to have issue himself, Emperor Paul I. So there is no traceable* descent from Karl XI or his father Karl X, two of Sweden's most remarkable kings, except through Paul I. As it happens there is no Romanov descent traceable either, and of the current monarchs only these three have Paul I among their ancestors.

So, is there anyone who can trace descent from all seven of the 1660 monarchs with a surviving posterity? On the face of it it seems unlikely, someone who combines Catholic and Protestant royal lineage with descent from Charles II, found mainly in British and non-royal lines. But there are some people who can claim this, the children and grandchildren of the late Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse for example. As this post shows the children's mother is descended from Charles II, and their father had Catholic royal lineage through his mother and Protestant through his father, so between them descended from the other six sovereigns.

The children of Archduke Georg of Austria can also claim this admittedly obscure distinction. He is naturally a descendant of all the Catholic sovereigns in the list, and his wife Duchess Eilika of Oldenburg descends from the Emperor Paul I of Russia, therefore from Tsar Alexis and from Carl XI of Sweden. And Charles II? Him as well. Her great-grandmother Princess Ilka of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenburg was a sister of the Princess Madeleine mentioned in the linked post.

PS When I first posted this note only the family of Landgrave Moritz was given above, that of Archduke Georg being a later addition. I can now (12/11/2014) make mention of one more qualifying family, that of Maximilian, Margrave of Baden. As the ancestry of his son Hereditary Prince Bernhard will show at a glance, Margrave Maximilian has the requisite descents from the 1660 Protestant/Orthodox sovereigns with a legitimate posterity, and his wife Archduchess Valerie descends from the three Catholics, many times each. The Charles II descent is not so immediately apparent but is there, through Archduchess Valerie's mother Princess Rosemary of Salm and Salm-Salm, thus adding Protestant royal descendants of all seven sovereigns to the Catholics already shown.



* References to 'only child' should usually be read as 'only legitimate child'. Karl X had at least one illegitimate son and may have had other illegitimate children, but descent from them is not known. There is some suggestion that Karl XI had an illegitimate daughter from whom descent survives, but the only source I have seen for this is far from reliable and the suggestion conflicts with that King's known deep religious faith and devotion to his wife. Duke Karl Friedrich had an illegitimate daughter who had children herself, but the descent is not traceable very far. In the end none of this matters very much, as Paul I had many children and the line from Karl X and Karl XI is preserved in their descendants.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #5 

As explained in the Introduction thread for the section as a whole, in this and the last century charts cover all monarchs reigning at the particular date. Before that, only emperors, kings and empresses and queens regnant appear, plus Grand Princes of Moscow in the 1453, 1492 and 1517 threads. Others are overlooked both because in the case of princes of the Empire they were not technically sovereigns, and also simply to keep the task within bounds. I am not making an exception in this thread, the chart above features eight kings, one emperor and no other rulers. I am making an addition to it, which will for interest examine the relationships between what I see as the Empire’s major princes and the sovereigns in the chart, and also between the princes themselves.

Although not technically sovereigns as I say, they behaved very much as though they were, and certainly from the marriage point of view were regarded as fully equal with the actual royal families, so the relationships are worth exploring at least this once. I don’t intend to discuss the careers and achievements of the chosen princes, remarkable as some of them were, since I did not discuss the sovereigns in that way, but I will just explain how this particular group was chosen from among the Empire’s many princes.

The four prince-electors were a given. I added the Prince of Orange from the German princes since while Orange itself was perhaps not of major importance the Netherlands of which he was in effect hereditary ruler were. This particular prince took a step up in grade at a later date, but Prince of Orange is how he is shown in the charts that follow, since in 1660 that was all he was. He was by the way only nine years old at this date, which explains the number of 2rs in his relationships. Carl XI was aged four so ditto for him, a point I neglected to make in the thread introduction.

The Duke of Savoy was as much a given from the Italian princes as the prince-electors were from the German. Savoy had long been a player in the politics of the continent, and its ruling family were genealogical lynchpins in many ways, there is hardly an earlier chart that does not feature one or more of them in its key. Finally I added the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The importance of his realm had been declining, but I felt its size, its famous capital city and the elevated title of the ruler justified his inclusion.

These seven princes then are included in the charts that follow along with eight of the nine sovereigns in the original chart (the one omitted is Alexis of Russia; I could not see any point in calculating a further set of relationships for him which would be as doubtful as the original ones). They do not all appear together, though, until the final chart. This shows relationships between the Catholics and Protestants, while the previous two show relationships within these groups. The princes appear in accession order but coming after the sovereigns, who are likewise ordered amongst themselves.

Chart II (the first in the added set, chart I is the original chart) for the Catholics does not reveal anything unexpected, very close relationships through a small group of Catholic ancestors, as seen for the Catholic sovereigns of chart I and as seen in similar charts for later dates. Chart III for the Protestants shows again very close relationships but through a larger group of almost entirely (11 out of 12) Protestant ancestors. Again, this is very like the picture seen in chart I if you look at the Protestants alone, and also very like that shown by post-1660 charts. The benefit of the addition is that having a larger group separated out like this makes these facts much more apparent.

Finally, chart IV. The group of ancestors is larger again, and includes only one Protestant out of a total of 14, forming just one of the 68 relationships. These are on the whole more remote than those seen in the other charts, and are definitely more multiple. And, unlike charts II and III which are so like those of later on, chart IV could not be more different; all charts of this kind in threads for later dates have the Catholic/Protestant ratio reversed (though 1713 is something of a halfway house in this respect), that is if Catholics appear in the keys at all.

All very intriguing, I felt, as an exemplar of how the pattern of relationships shifted from the Reformation on until ossifying into that which held until the present day (though, as Blood Royal III shows, it was beginning to shift again before the demise of equal marriage made the question moot). Once I had completed the work I felt that what was shown, while discernible from the original chart, now appeared so much more clearly that the exercise had been well worth doing, and would also be worth posting.

Combined statistics for the three added charts follow chart IV (the non-example relationships in chart I are all repeated in one or other of the later three, so would double up if that were included), and are themselves followed by a note on the posterities of the princes (the sovereigns having been covered by the note preceding this), which finishes off the additional matter in the thread.

Peter

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II: Relationships between the Catholic European sovereigns, including princes of the Empire, at the proclamation of the Restoration of Charles II, 8th May 1660
Reigning MonarchFelipe IVLouis XIVJan II KAfonso VILeopold IFerdinando IIC Emanuele IIF Maria
Felipe IV of SpainU F3S1c KIIA3c1r MIPAU F3S1c KIIA1c1r FIIS1c1r KIIA
Louis XIV of FranceN F3S1c1r KIIA4c MIPA1c F3S1c1r KIIA1c HIVF2c KIIA
Jan II Kazimierz of Poland1c KIIA1c1r KIIA4c1r FIIA1c1r KIIA1c KIIA2c1r FIH1c1r KIIA
Afonso VI of Portugal3c1r MIPA4c MIPA4c1r FIIA4c MIPA4c1r FIIA4c MIPA5c FIIA
Leopold I, Holy Roman EmperorN F3S1c F3S1c1r KIIA4c MIPA1c1r KIIA2c FIIS1c FIIH
Ferdinando II, Grand Duke of Tuscany1c KIIA1c1r KIIA1c KIIA4c1r FIIA1c1r KIIA2c1r CIT
2c1r FIH
1c1r KIIA
Carlo Emanuele II, Duke of Savoy1c1r FIIS1c HIVF2c1r FIH4c MIPA2c FIIS2c1r CIT
2c1r FIH
3c FIH
Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria1c1r KIIA2c KIIA1c1r KIIA5c FIIA1c FIIH1c1r KIIA3c FIH
Peter

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Reply with quote  #7 
Key:  
CITF3SFIH
Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1)Felipe III of Spain (3)Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (3)
FIIAFIIHFIIS
Ferrando II of Aragón (3)Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)Felipe II of Spain (2)
HIVFKIIAMIPA
Henri IV of France (1)Karl II, Archduke of Austria (11)Manoel I of Portugal (4)
Most connections formed:KIIA (11)MIPA (4)F3S, FIH, FIIA (3)FIIS (2)Others (1)
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Reply with quote  #8 
III: Relationships between the Protestant European sovereigns, including princes of the Empire, at the proclamation of the Restoration of Charles II, 8th May 1660
Reigning MonarchFrederik IIICharles IIKarl XIF WilhelmKarl I LudwigWillem IIIJ Georg II
Frederik III of Denmark and Norway1c1r FIID1c2r FIID1c1r JFB1c1r FIID1c2r FIID2c JGB
Charles II of England and Scotland1c1r FIID2c1r FIID3c1r FIH1c JIEU CIE3c C3D
3c FIH
Karl XI of Sweden1c2r FIID2c1r FIID2c1r AFP
2c1r LVIP
2c1r FIID
2c1r LVIP
3c FIIDGN JGIE
Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg1c1r JFB3c1r FIH2c1r AFP
2c1r LVIP
1c FIVP2c WIO1c1r AFP
Karl I Ludwig, Elector Palatine1c1r FIID1c JIE2c1r FIID
2c1r LVIP
1c FIVP1c1r JIE3c C3D
Willem III, Prince of Orange1c2r FIIDN CIE3c FIID2c WIO1c1r JIE3c1r C3D
3c1r FIH
Johann Georg II, Elector of Saxony2c JGB3c C3D
3c FIH
GU JGIE1c1r AFP3c C3D3c1r C3D
3c1r FIH
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Key:  
AFPC3DCIE
Albrecht Friedrich, Duke of Prussia (2)Christian III of Denmark and Norway (3)Charles I of England and Scotland (1)
FIHFIIDFIVP
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (3)Frederik II of Denmark and Norway (7)Friedrich IV, Elector Palatine (1)
JFBJGBJGIE
Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (1)Johann Georg, Elector of Brandenburg (1)Johann Georg I, Elector of Saxony (1)
JIELVIPWIO
James I/VI of England and Scotland (2)Ludwig VI, Elector Palatine (2)Willem I, Prince of Orange (1)
Most connections formed:FIID (7)C3D, FIH (3)AFP, JIE, LVIP (2)Others (1)
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IV: Relationships between the Catholic and Protestant European sovereigns, including princes of the Empire, at the proclamation of the Restoration of Charles II, 8th May 1660
Reigning MonarchFrederik III
of Denmark
Charles II
of England
Karl XI
of Sweden
F Wilhelm
E of B'burg
Karl I Ludwig
E Palatine
Willem III
P of Orange
J Georg II
E of Saxony
Felipe IV of Spain4c1r KIVP2c1r FIH2c2r FIH2c2r FIH4c1r AIVB
4c1r KIVP
2c2r FIH2c1r FIH
Louis XIV of France5c KIVP1c HIVF3c1r FIH3c1r FIH4c1r CCA
4c1r FCV
1c1r HIVF3c FIH
Jan II Kazimierz of Poland3c2r KIVP2c1r FIH2c1r GIS2c2r FIH3c2r KIVP2c2r FIH2c1r FIH
Afonso VI of Portugal9c2r F2S5c FIIA5c1r FIIA5c1r FIIA6c1r DIP5c1r FIIA5c FIIA
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor4c1r HDN3c FIH3c1r FIH3c1r FIH5c AIVB
5c GCM
5c KIVP
5c RIIL
3c1r FIH3c FIH
Ferdinando II, Grand Duke of Tuscany4c1r HDN
4c1r KIVP
2c1r CIT
2c1r FIH
2c2r FIH2c2r FIH4c1r AIVB
4c1r KIVP
2c2r CIT
2c2r FIH
2c1r FIH
Carlo Emanuele II, Duke of Savoy5c KIVP1c HIVF3c1r FIH3c1r FIH4c1r CCA
4c1r FCV
1c1r HIVF3c FIH
Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria4c HDN3c FIH3c1r FIH3c1r FIH4c1r AIVB
4c1r GCM
4c1r RIIL
3c1r FIH3c FIH
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Reply with quote  #11 
Key:  
AIVBCCACIT
Albrecht IV, Duke of Bavaria (4)Charles, Count of Angoulême (2)Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany (2)
DIPF2SFCV
Duarte I of Portugal (1)Federico II of SicilyFrançois, Count of Vendôme (2)
FIHFIIAGCM
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (30)Ferrando II of Aragón (5)Gilbert, Count of Montpensier (2)
GISHDNHIVF
Gustav I of Sweden (1)Hans of Denmark and Norway (3)Henri IV of France (4)
KIVPRIIL 
Kazimierz IV of Poland (9)René II, Duke of Lorraine (2) 
The one relationship through F2S is treated as an example and excluded from statistics. See the thread introduction for a full explanation.
Most connections formed:FIH (30)KIVP (9)FIIA (5)AIVB, HIVF (4)HDN (3)CCA, CIT, FCV, GCM, RIIL (2)Others (1)
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Combined statistics 1660 charts II-IV
CodeNameTIIIIIIVCodeNameTIIIIIIV
FIHFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor36  3330FIISFelipe II of Spain22--
KIIAKarl II, Archduke of Austria1111--GCMGilbert, Count of Montpensier2--2
KIVPKazimierz IV of Poland  9--  9JIEJames I/VI of England and Scotland2-2-
FIIAFerrando II of Aragón  8  3-  5LVIPLudwig VI, Elector Palatine2-2-
FIIDFrederik II of Denmark and Norway  7-7-RIILRené II, Duke of Lorraine2--2
HIVFHenri IV of France  5  1-  4CIECharles I of England and Scotland1-1-
AIVBAlbrecht IV, Duke of Bavaria  4--  4DIPDuarte I of Portugal1--1
MIPAManoel I of Portugal  4  4--FIIHFerdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor11--
C3DChristian III of Denmark and Norway  3-3-FIVPFriedrich IV, Elector Palatine1-1-
CITCosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany  3  1-  2GISGustav I of Sweden1--1
F3SFelipe III of Spain  3  3--JFBJoachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg1-1-
HDNHans of Denmark and Norway  3--  3JGBJohann Georg, Elector of Brandenburg1-1-
AFPAlbrecht Friedrich, Duke of Prussia  2-2-JGIEJohann Georg I, Elector of Saxony1-1-
CCACharles, Count of Angoulême  2--  2WIOWillem I, Prince of Orange1-1-
FCVFrançois, Count of Vendôme  2--  2      
Peter

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Reply with quote  #13 

A note on posterities – princes

Of the seven princes, five have descendants among the sovereigns of today, though none is an ancestor of all. The two exceptions are Willem III of Orange, who never had children either by his wife or his one known mistress, and Ferdinando II of Tuscany. He had children, grandchildren and even one (illegitimate) great-grandchild, but there is no known descent beyond that. The sovereigns of Belgium, Spain, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein are however descended from his sister Margherita de' Medici, the most recent member of the once-great family from whom known descent survives.

The pattern among the other princes is curious. The Protestant Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg (known as the Great Elector, for ample reason) is an ancestor of all current sovereigns except the Princes of Monaco and Liechtenstein; the latter’s grandson and eventual heir Prince Joseph Wenzel is however a descendant. This is what would be expected for a Protestant prince of this date, and the Catholics Carlo Emanuele II of Savoy and Ferdinand Maria of Bavaria also adhere to the norm, being ancestors of the current Catholic sovereigns only, the Prince of Monaco as usual excepted. The oddities are Karl I Ludwig of the Palatinate and Johann Georg II of Saxony, Protestants both and yet ancestors of all today’s Catholic monarchs, with the inevitable exception, and none of the Protestants.

Karl I Ludwig had children that lived to adulthood by two of his three wives, and a particularly large brood by the second one. Unfortunately the marriage in question was both morganatic and bigamous, making his issue by it not exactly prime on the royal marriage market. Of the two unquestionably legitimate and equal children of the first marriage, his son and successor Karl II was childless and his daughter Elisabeth Charlotte married the Catholic Duke of Orléans.

Her further descent, and that of Karl I Ludwig so far as royal houses were concerned, naturally then spread through Catholic rather than Protestant lines. The Duke of Cambridge however is a descendant of one of the daughters of the second marriage, and will sometime in the 21st century become the first ever Protestant monarch descended from this 17th-century Protestant Elector Palatine.

Finally, Johann Georg II. He had three children and two grandchildren, sons of his own son and successor Johann Georg III. The elder of these succeeded in turn as Johann Georg IV. His remarkably sordid story is worth perusing, but ended when he died aged twenty-six, leaving no issue bar an illegitimate daughter. She lived to adulthood and had children, but while descent may well survive from her it is not going to include any of the sovereigns of today.

The younger brother succeeded as Friedrich August I, and later managed to obtain the Polish crown, reigning as August II. But although he had an immense number of illegitimate children there was but one child of his marriage, his son Friedrich August II of Saxony, who followed his father on the Polish throne too as August III. In order to gain that throne Friedrich August I had converted to Catholicism. He did not convert his then infant son, but aged 16 the boy made the decision for himself. And thus it was that Catholic lines received a major infusion of Protestant blood, August III’s daughters spreading his exclusively Protestant ancestry far and wide, and Protestant lines were denied descent from any Elector of Saxony after Johann Georg I.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #14 

Anyone wishing to reply to this topic is invited to do so in the discussion thread at the top of the page. This thread has been locked, for reasons explained there. Some replies that were made when it was open have been moved to that discussion thread, and can be found on its first page.

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