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Peter

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Once out of nature I shall never take
My bodily form from any natural thing,
But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make
Of hammered gold and gold enamelling
To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;
Or set upon a golden bough to sing
To lords and ladies of Byzantium
Of what is past, or passing, or to come.

W. B. Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium (1928)

On the morning of 29th May 1453, the last remnant of the greatest power of the ancient world was on its deathbed. Constantinople, for a thousand years the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, the City to the peoples of Europe, a wonder of the world, now had less than a twentieth of its former population. Much of the land within its great walls had been given over to agriculture, rather than the majestic urban landscape, unique in Europe, that had once left travellers agape with awe. Only a vestige was left to it of the vast lands it had once governed, and all around it had been conquered by the Ottoman Turks, who now had the city itself under siege.

The Emperor, Constantine XI, just four years on his throne, had spent his reign desperately trying to scrape together allies and stave off the doom all could see coming. But the powers of Christian Europe were too far away, too preoccupied with their own quarrels, to send more than token aid. What was to come was that Constantinople would fall, and the Sultan take his seat where for so long the Emperors had ruled and the marvellous mechanical birds once sang upon boughs of gold. The Roman Empire was ended at last, and for the next two centuries the Ottoman Empire would loom over Europe like an impending avalanche, until in 1683 its forces were smashed at the gates of Vienna and its own long decline began.

***

At the other end of the Mediterranean, the Iberian realms were nearing the end of a centuries-long process of recovery from their own subjugation by Muslim conquerors. The Emirate of Granada remained, a substantial presence in the south-east of the peninsula, but was now tributary to Castile. In that realm Juan II dreamed away his days, preoccupied with hunting and jousting and other such courtly amusements while the country around him edged towards anarchy, his lax rule doing nothing to restrain the ever-growing power of the nobility.

Alfonso V of Aragón, known as the Magnanimous, was a very different kind of man to his cousin, energetic and charismatic. His time however was spent mostly in his conquered kingdom of Naples, the rule of the Iberian territories left in the hands of his childless and neglected Queen, Maria of Castile, sister of Juan II. His brother and heir presumptive, the future Chuan II, a man seemingly devoid of scruple (the Faithless was his sobriquet) but plentifully endowed with guile, had stolen the rule of Navarre from his own son, whom at this date he held in prison, but despite the resulting civil war still found time to meddle in the affairs of Aragón and Castile alike.

That son was Carlos, the hated (by his father; he was otherwise a popular and generally admired prince) issue of his first marriage, to Blanca I, Queen of Navarre, not the adored Ferrando, fruit of his second marriage, to the Castilian noblewoman Juana Enriquez. As scheming and treacherous as her husband, Juana’s dream was that Ferrando, just a year old at this date, would one day marry Juan II of Castile’s daughter Isabella (Juan II’s son, the future Enrique IV, had already gained his sobriquet, the Impotent) and thus unite the realms.

***

In the west of Iberia Afonso V of Portugal had succeeded his father aged just six. His minority had been spent under the regency of his uncle Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, one of the most admired of the remarkable sons of João I, called in Portugal ‘the illustrious generation’. Wise and far-sighted, Pedro guided the realm well, but there was a cuckoo in the nest.

His illegitimate half-brother Afonso, Count of Barcelos, was jealous of Pedro’s royal rank and greater standing, and became ever more influential with the young king as he grew, ever seeking to sow discord between his nephew and his brother. Even marriage between Pedro’s daughter Isabella and his ward did nothing to stem the whispered tide of accusations. Nor had the earlier placatory elevation of the Count of Barcelos to Duke of Bragança, first of the illustrious line which eventually acceded to the Portuguese throne.

Afonso V came of age in 1448. In the following year the elder Afonso convinced him that Pedro was plotting treason, a charge utterly without foundation. Civil war ensued, and the blameless Pedro, seeking only to defend himself, was killed in battle. An adult reign so ill begun did not continue especially fruitfully, either. Afonso’s crusades against the Moors of Morocco resulted in much slaughter and some acquisition of territory, gaining him also the sobriquet of ‘the African’, but when he eventually turned his attention back to Iberia it was not to Portugal but to neighbouring Castile, which he spent years trying to conquer in the name of his second wife (and niece) Joanna, putatively the daughter of Enrique IV but actually of one of the many lovers of his wife, Afonso’s sister Joan.

Afonso’s failures in Castile eventually led to his retirement to a monastery, the rule entrusted to his heir, the future João II. He died there four years later, a more peaceful end than that which awaited his cousin to the north, the king of England. Henry VI, son of a mighty father, had succeeded unchallenged to the English throne when less than a year old. He was king of France also, and was crowned as such aged eight. But by the time he reached his majority much of France had been wrested away, and by this date Calais and the Pale around it were all that was left, plus a foothold in Gascony which would shortly (at the battle of Castillon, July 17) be dislodged. Henry became catatonic on hearing this news, a state from which he did not emerge for over a year.

After sixteen years of his adult reign, law and order had collapsed and anarchy prevailed throughout the land. The treasury was empty, Henry unable to afford even to feed the members of his household, and the war in France had become a litany of defeats. It cannot be proved, of course, but my belief is that he did not inherit the insanity of his grandfather Charles VI of France, his undoubted mental illness appearing to me likely to have been stress-related rather than genetic.

Unfitted by either character or capability for the high position to which he was born, ill-served by those around him and dominated by a wife whose own judgement was not of the best, he realised that everything was going disastrously wrong, could see no way ever to put it right and just shut down. That, at any rate, is my guess. Nor did matters improve; his eventual recovery and resumption of power caused the Wars of the Roses to begin, in the course of which Henry was deposed, restored, deposed again, and eventually killed.

***

In contrast to his cousin of England, James II was proving to be one of the stronger Scottish kings. His reign, which began with his father’s murder when James was aged just six, had been marked until now by struggle with the Douglases, the wealthiest magnates in the land, rivalling and even surpassing the king in their resources of lands and men. When James was nine years old he had watched as the 16-year-old William, Earl of Douglas, and his 11-year-old brother David were beheaded in the Edinburgh Castle yard, having been invited ostensibly to dine but in fact to die.

The young king pleaded piteously and unsuccessfully for their lives, but in 1452, twelve years later, he would himself invite the 8th Earl, another William Douglas, for talks to resolve their differences, offering a safe conduct, then stab the Earl reportedly over 20 times before having his body contemptuously flung out of the window. It was an infamous deed, but it led to the breaking of the Douglas power, and though no Scottish king could ever be said to have really mastered the nobility until James VI inherited the enormously greater resources of England, at least there was never again a single family of such power, able by itself to challenge that of the king.

In Henry VI’s former realm of France, his uncle Charles VII was now well-established as king, a reign that had begun with years of skulking south of the Loire ending with him in control of all France. But not of one particular Frenchman, his son the Dauphin hating him with a bitter passion and refusing even to come to his father’s deathbed (it was then fifteen years since they had met) when begged to do so. That son then came to overshadow his father in historical memory; Louis XI, the Spider, who seemed at times to have all Europe wound up in his plots and intrigues. But Charles must be accounted a successful king; his reign began with his kingdom fragmented and half-overrun, and ended with it whole and free. It seems to me that he did more for France than his son ever would, for all the latter’s schemes and wiles and cold-hearted cleverness.

***

We now head away from the west of Europe, to Austria, and the interwoven stories of the Emperor Friedrich III and Ladislaus V of Hungary. Both Habsburgs, Friedrich was head of the junior Leopoldine and Ladislaus of the senior Albertine branch. In addition to Hungary, to which throne he had been elected aged four, Ladislaus was the hereditary ruler of Austria, and later in 1453 would be elected king of Bohemia. But despite all these lands and titles he was at this date only thirteen years old, and under tutelage.

From not long after birth until the previous year that tutelage had been the Emperor’s, who had kept the boy close and administered his Austrian lands as if they were his own, though Hungary was under the regency of the famous János Hunyadi. However, in 1452 Ulrich II of Celje, a relation of Ladislaus on his mother’s side, managed to obtain possession of him and control over his lands, Hungary included.

Things didn’t look so good for Friedrich. But he was patient in adversity, and had a simple method of overcoming his enemies; he outlived them. When Ladislaus’s father Albrecht II had died, four months before Ladislaus was born, as temporarily senior Habsburg male he had obtained election as German king in succession to Albrecht, later becoming Emperor, and when Ladislaus died still a teenager (poison was suspected, but a 20th-century forensic examination of the remains discovered that leukaemia was the cause) Friedrich was now again most senior Habsburg male, Ladislaus having been the last Albertine, and Austria was his. He continued his policy of outliving foes until aged 77 he finally had to concede the struggle, but was still the only sovereign in these charts to live long enough to appear in the 1492 chart also.

***

Continuing east we go to Moscow, where Vasily II’s long and troubled reign was in its final decade. It had begun in 1425 with him aged just ten, and had done so despite the protests of his uncle Yuri, who believed that the throne was rightfully his under the hitherto prevailing system of agnatic seniority, straightforward hereditary succession from father to son being a new thing in Russia. War began five years later, when death removed the powerful protection of Vasily’s maternal grandfather Vytautas the Great of Lithuania, and raged on for many years more. Yuri succeeded in taking Moscow and becoming Grand Prince, then when he died Vasily regained his throne. Yuri’s sons carried on the fight, though, and seven years earlier when a prisoner of his cousin Dmitry Shemyaka, the younger of Yuri’s sons, Vasily had been blinded.

He nevertheless managed to again regain his throne, though Dmitry was at this date still alive and at large. Not for much longer, though; Vasily’s agents managed to bribe Dmitry’s cook, who on 17th July fed his master a dish of poisoned chicken, from which he died. Free at last from civil strife and rivalry for the throne, Vasily continued the centralising policies he had pursued whenever in power, laying a sure foundation for his son Ivan III’s achievement of unifying all the Russian lands under one rule. The beginning of what was to become the Russian Empire can thus in many ways be dated to Vasily’s reign, full of turmoil though it was.

And the beginning of the independent Russian Orthodox Church definitively can. In 1448, outraged by what he saw as the apostasy of the Greek church in agreeing to submit to Rome (in a failed bid to win Western aid against the Turkish threat), Vasily appointed a Metropolitan of Moscow, a position which had been unfilled for seven years, without first obtaining the permission of the Ecumenical Patriarch; effectively a unilateral declaration of independence, and one that stuck.

***

Still in the east but far to the south, the Kingdom of Cyprus was the last remaining vestige of the Crusader era. It still had a few decades left to cling to life, but was a shadowy realm at best, in vassalage to the Mameluks of Egypt and its king exercising little control outside the cities, unable to curb either the pirates that operated from the coasts or the robbers that ravaged the countryside. Such was Jean II’s unfortunate heritage from his father Janus (who had been born in captivity in Genoa, the rapacious Genoese merchant republic having dominated the kingdom prior to the Mameluks). Jean was in full King of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia, but never ruled any part of the second kingdom, of the third held only one island fortress, lost during his reign, and, as we have seen, could never be said to be fully in control of even the first.

Our Cook’s tour of Europe in 1453 still has a few stops to make, the next being in Poland, where Kazimierz IV, third of the Jagiellon dynasty, was six years on his throne. His father Władysław II Jagiełło had been the first of them: Jogaila, last pagan Grand Prince of Lithuania, who converted to Catholicism and married the future St Jadwiga, heiress of Poland, founding the union between the realms.

However, their only child, a daughter, died a few weeks after birth, swiftly followed by her mother. Another lady of Polish royal blood, Anna of Celje, married Władysław, buttressing his claim to continued occupation of the throne, but their marriage also only produced a daughter. She lived, but when Anna died Władysław married yet again, seeking sons, but with no fruit of the brief marriage. Fourth time lucky, his next union, with Lithuanian noblewoman Sophia of Halcany, produced two sons, Władysław and Kazimierz. By the time the latter was born, the elder Władysław (whose exact year of birth is not known to us) must have been at least in his sixties, and possibly his seventies, explaining the large generational disparities seen between Kazimierz and his descendants and other descendants of Władysław II’s father Algirdas, or grandfather Gediminas. Starting with Kazimierz and his wife Elizabeth of Austria (Ladislaus V’s sister); he was a great-grandson of Gediminas, she a 4 x great-granddaughter.

We don’t know who Gediminas’s great-grandfather was, or grandfather, or father. We have guesses, but that is all. His three predecessors as Grand Prince of Lithuania were Vytenis, his father Butvydas, and his father’s brother Butigeidis. We don’t know the antecedents of the brothers Butvydas and Butigeidis, though again there are guesses, which include their being of the line of Traidenis, the earliest Lithuanian ruler from whom there is known descent; for example, to Friedrich III above. As Gediminas appears to have succeeded Vytenis instantly and without opposition, and was too similar in age to be his son, it is theorised that he was his brother, another son of Butvydas. But we don’t know. He could have been a cousin, he could have been entirely unrelated.

We don’t know how many wives he had, either; several are suggested, but only one, Jewna of Polatsk, seems generally accepted. It’s hard to see why, the evidence for her existence is as flimsy as is that for the others you will see listed. But whether he had one wife or a harem-full, and whoever she or they were, there is no debate about his having at least twelve children, from whom the descent of this pagan ruler of unknown origin spread far and wide through Europe’s royal houses.

Though happy enough to marry a Christian, at least according to the scanty and unreliable sources we have, or possibly several Christians, and to forge alliances through marrying his daughters (who would necessarily convert) and his sons (who might or might not) to the same, Gediminas never converted himself. His son Algirdas followed the same policy, and it was a policy. Their subjects were almost all either pagan or Orthodox. The former would have been unhappy at any conversion, though Orthodoxy would have been preferable to Catholicism. The latter would have been delighted no doubt with an Orthodox ruler, but preferred a pagan to a Catholic, as less likely to forcibly meddle with their own religion.

Yet only in Catholicism lay the chance of peace with Lithuania’s neighbours to the west, far stronger at that date than the gaggle of Russian princedoms and republics and Tatar khanates to the east, and in particular with the Teutonic Knights, vowed to crusade for so long as Lithuania remained pagan (Orthodoxy would have been little better than paganism to them, if not worse). Peace with the neighbours, or peace at home? Both Gediminas and Algirdas chose both, dangling the carrot of conversion to appease the Christian powers while never actually converting.

That was not an option Jogaila had if he were to marry the Polish heiress and become Władysław II, King of Poland as well as Grand Prince of Lithuania. So he did convert, and pagan Lithuania, reluctantly or otherwise, converted with him at last. And when, Władysław II having died and Władysław III succeeded, the thirteen-year-old Kazimierz visited Lithuania to show the family flag and was promptly elected Grand Prince, much to the dismay of the Polish court, he was that land’s first ever ruler to be a cradle Christian. In 1444 Władysław III, who had been elected king of Hungary as well as Poland, died at the Battle of Varna, defending his second kingdom from the Ottomans, and after a three-year interregnum Kazimierz became the second person to jointly rule Lithuania and Poland.

His long reign saw the final defeat of the Teutonic Knights (it had been only a pious hope that they would cease ‘crusading’ for any such unimportant reason as their foes now being fellow Catholics) and the subjection of Prussia to Poland, and his happy marriage brought him thirteen children, including four kings and a saint. Not only is Kazimierz himself a universal ancestor of European royalty today, so are no fewer than five of those children.

***

Another who, like Gediminas, rose from obscurity to have his blood spread like wildfire was Christian I of Denmark. Although the Jagiellons are long extinct in the male line the Gediminids continue, many of the great noble houses of Poland and Russia having their root in Algirdas or another of the sons of Gediminas. The male line of Christian I also continues, reigning in Denmark (though the present generation will be the last) and Norway, and in the next generation in Britain, having in the past reigned in Sweden, Russia and Greece also.

And yet he was a nonentity, an obscure minor nobleman of northern Germany. But it so happened that he possessed distant descents from various kings of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and, no one being able to claim any descent from more recent monarchs following the death of Christopher III, was offered the thrones of first Denmark then Norway, later briefly acquiring that of Sweden also. He married Dorothea of Brandenburg, widow of his predecessor Christopher III (and a Gediminas descendant). Three of their children lived to adulthood, Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, Frederik I of Denmark and Norway only, and Margaret, Queen of Scotland as wife of James III. Each is a universal ancestor of royalty today, and Frederik is the male-line ancestor of two present and five future monarchs, and of very many in the past.

In Sweden, Karl VIII had no such dynastic success. His was a familiar pattern in Sweden, a powerful noble who managed to obtain the throne for himself, though he was nearly the last such; the very last, Gustaf I, did establish a dynasty, and re-ordered and stabilised the Swedish realm to the extent that after him it was at least only members of the royal house that could dream of taking the throne.

But not only did Karl (who was in reality Karl II and so styled himself; the VIII is a back-formation from Erik XIV and his successors on the throne being numbered in accordance with a wholly fictitious history of early Sweden that Erik and his brother Karl IX believed to be truthful) fail to establish a continuing dynasty, he didn't even manage a continuing reign, being deposed twice and restored twice. A posterity he did accomplish, though it was not until the 19th century that he could claim a descendant on any throne, and for the Swedish he had to wait until the 20th; see part 2 of the note on posterities for more on this.

And so the tour ends, genealogical excursions and all. The Eastern Roman Empire was gone forever, but the successor states of its Western twin, and the realms which had grown up in the formerly barbarian lands beyond, were trembling on the verge of a new era, an age of discovery and literally of world conquest, a transformation of science and art and civil life. I will conclude with some lines from another master poet, T. S. Eliot, in Little Gidding (1942):

What we call the beginning is often the end
And to make an end is to make a beginning.
The end is where we start from.

What follows is three charts; having dodged the bullet in 1660, 1558, 1517 and 1492 I finally had to break one of these early charts up. I tried taking out Karl VIII of Sweden as, being very remote (actually the remotest in any of the charts), his relationships are naturally classed as examples, no dice. I tried taking out Vasily II and the Eastern Emperor Constantine XI as they were Orthodox and the rest Catholic, still no dice. So finally, there being no other religious divide than Catholic/Orthodox at this date, I split the chart on the basis of accession date. 

The first chart shows the seven most senior monarchs with each other, the second the seven most junior with each other and the third has the first set with the second set. There is I suppose some kind of validity to the split; the first seven acceded over the period 1406 to 1437, and the second seven between 1438 and 1449, and one can compare the relationships of the first set with the second and see if there are any trends and marked differences. Anyway, two tables of combined statistics come after the charts and keys (interestingly, they show that there are no nearest ancestors in common between the first and second chart), and finally there is a three-part note on posterities.

Two further points on the charts. Firstly, although Navarre is discussed above it does not appear in them, as I do not regard Chuan of Aragón as its valid monarch (nor did the Navarrese, or many of the other realms of the day) and neither his son Carlos nor his daughter Blanca, who ought to have succeeded in turn, ever reigned there. Considering Navarre’s throne as vacant was not to save me toil, as the relationships would have been exactly those of Chuan’s brother Alfonso V, but because I believe this is the most correct approach.

Secondly, if people look at Christian I’s ancestry they will see that one of his paternal great-grandmothers is not shown. This is because his great-grandfather Dietrich V, Count of Honstein had two wives, and we don’t know which of them was the mother of his children. Adelheid of Holstein would make no difference to the relationships, Sophia of Brunswick would make one or two of them a little nearer. If I could trace through her, which since we don’t know I can’t. 

That said, there is an explanation of how to read the charts here.

Peter

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Relationships of the European sovereigns on the morning of 29 May 1453, the day of the Fall of Constantinople (part I)
Reigning MonarchJuan IIAlfonso VHenry VICharles VIIVasily IIJean IIJames II
Juan II of Castile1c JIC1c1r JDL3c1r CCV
3c1r F2S
8c2r YDK4c JIIH1c1r JDL
Alfonso V of Aragón1c JIC4c F2S3c1r F2S8c2r YDK5c1r F3C
5c1r LIXF
5c1r CIIN
5c1r F3C
Henry VI of England1c1r JDL4c F2SN CVIF7c2r RGK3c1r LDB2c JDL
Charles VII of France3c1r CCV
3c1r F2S
3c1r F2SU CVIF7c1r MGK
7c1r RGK
3c LDB3c2r CCV
Vasily II of Moscow8c2r YDK8c2r YDK7c2r RGK7c1r MGK
7c1r RGK
9c1r B3P
9c1r MIGK
9c2r MIGK
Jean II of Cyprus4c JIIH5c1r F3C
5c1r LIXF
3c1r LDB3c LDB9c1r B3P
9c1r MIGK
4c1r JIIH
James II of Scotland1c1r JDL5c1r CIIN
5c1r F3C
2c JDL3c2r CCV9c2r MIGK4c1r JIIH
Peter

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Key:  
B3PCCVCIIN
Bolesław III of Poland (1)Charles, Count of Valois (2)Charles II of Naples (1)
CVIFF2SF3C
Charles VI of France (1)Federico II of Sicily (3)Fernando III of Castile (2)
JDLJICJIIH
John, Duke of Lancaster (3)Juan I of Castile (1)Jan II, Count of Holland and Hainaut (2)
LDBLIXFMGK
Louis I, Duke of Bourbon (2)Louis IX of France (1)Mikhail, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)
MIGKRGKYDK
Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (2)Roman, Grand Prince of Kiev (2)Yuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev (2)
Most connections formed:F2S, JDL (3)CCV, F3C, JIIH, LDB, MIGK, RGK, YDK (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Relationships of the European sovereigns on the morning of 29 May 1453, the day of the Fall of Constantinople (part II)
Reigning MonarchAfonso VFriedrich IIILadislaus VKazimierz IVKarl VIIIChristian IConstantine XI
Afonso V of Portugal4c2r MIIC4c WHH5c3r BIVH12c2r RIF6c1r AIVS
6c1r HIIB
6c1r OIIB
5c2r I5H
5c2r TIS
Friedrich III, Holy Roman Emperor4c2r MIIC2c1r AIIA1c1r AGL12c1r RIF4c2r RIG5c1r TFL
Ladislaus V of Hungary4c WHH2c1r AIIA2c3r GGL12c1r RIF4c1r LIIB4c1r JBL
Kazimierz IV of Poland5c3r BIVH1c1r AGL2c3r GGL15c1r BIB6c2r AIIH5c1r BIVH
Karl VIII of Sweden12c2r RIF12c1r RIF12c1r RIF15c1r BIB7c IYL11c1r RIF
Christian I of Denmark & Norway6c1r AIVS
6c1r HIIB
6c1r OIIB
4c2r RIG4c1r LIIB6c2r AIIH7c IYL5c3r TIS
Constantine XI, Eastern Roman Emperor5c2r I5H
5c2r TIS
5c1r TFL4c1r JBL5c1r BIVH11c1r RIF5c3r TIS
Peter

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Key:  
AGLAIIAAIIH
Algirdas, Grand Prince of Lithuania (1)Albrecht II, Duke of Austria (1)András II of Hungary (1)
AIVSBIBBIVH
Amadeo IV, Count of Savoy (1)Boleslav I, Duke of BohemiaBéla IV of Hungary (2)
GGLHIIBI5H
Gediminas, Grand Prince of Lithuania (1)Hendrik II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier (1)István V of Hungary (1)
IYLJBLLIIB
Ingrid YlvaJan I, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1)Ludwig II, Duke of Bavaria (1)
MIICOIIBRIF
Meinhard II, Duke of Carinthia (1)Otto II, Duke of Bavaria (1)Robert I, Count of Flanders
RIGTFLTIS
Rudolf I of Germany (1)Tedisio Fieschi, Count of Lavagna (1)Tommaso I, Count of Savoy (2)
WHH  
Willem III, Count of Holland and Hainaut (1)  
Relationships to Karl VIII of Sweden are through IYL, BIB and RIF. Relationships through the latter two ancestors are treated as examples and are not included in any statistics. The one relationship through IYL would be the nearest if sufficiently authenticated. It is however a little questionable, see the biographical information at the bottom here for the next generation after IYL in the chain to Karl VIII, and is likewise excluded from statistics. The link for the relationship between Karl VIII and Christian I includes an example of the next nearest (and more solidly grounded) relationship, 8c1r through Bengt Folkason Snivel.
Most connections formed :BIVH, TIS (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Relationships of the European sovereigns on the morning of 29 May 1453, the day of the Fall of Constantinople (part III)
Reigning MonarchAfonso V
of Portugal
Friedrich III
Holy Roman Emperor
Ladislaus V
of Hungary
Kazimierz IV
of Poland
Karl VIII
of Sweden
Christian I
of Denmark
Constantine XI
Eastern Emperor
Juan II of Castile1c1r JDL
1c1r JIC
4c1r MIIC3c1r WHH5c2r BIVH12c3r RIF6c OIIB5c1r I5H
5c1r TIS
Alfonso V of AragónU FIAS4c1r MIIC5c HVL
5c MIIC
5c2r BIVH12c3r RIF6c OIIB5c1r I5H
5c1r TIS
Henry VI of England2c JDL2c1r BVM3c1r JIB
3c1r LIVE
5c2r BIVH12c3r RIF5c LIIB4c2r JBL
Charles VII of France3c2r CCV
3c2r F2S
2c BVM3c JIB
3c LIVE
5c1r BIVH12c2r RIF4c1r LIIB4c1r JBL
Vasily II of Moscow8c3r YDK3c GGL3c2r GGL2c1r GGL
2c1r SIIS
15c BIB8c2r YDK9c1r MIGK
Jean II of Cyprus4c1r JIIH7c MCB
7c PGI
4c1r JIIH8c CPA12c1r RIF5c AIBL5c HIVL
James II of Scotland2c JDL6c2r BIVH4c WHH5c3r BIVH12c1r RIF6c1r HIIB5c2r HIIB
5c2r I5H
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Key:  
AIBLBIBBIVH
Albrecht I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1)Boleslav I, Duke of BohemiaBéla IV of Hungary (6)
BVMCCVCPA
Barnabò Visconti, Lord of Milan (2)Charles, Count of Valois (1)Constance, Princess of Antioch (1)
F2SFIASGGL
Federico II of Sicily (1)Ferrando I of Aragón (1)Gediminas, Grand Prince of Lithuania (3)
HIIBHIVLHVL
Hendrik II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier (2)Hethum IV, Lord of Lambron (1)Henryk V, Duke of Legnica (1)
I5HJBLJDL
István V of Hungary (3)Jan I, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (2)John, Duke of Lancaster (3)
JIBJICJIIH
Johann of Bohemia (2)Juan I of Castile (1)Jan II, Count of Holland and Hainaut (2)
LIIBLIVEMCB
Ludwig II, Duke of Bavaria (2)Ludwig IV, Holy Roman Emperor (2)Marguerite, Countess of Blois (1)
MIGKMIICOIIB
Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)Meinhard II, Duke of Carinthia (3)Otto II, Duke of Bavaria (2)
PGIRIFSIIS
Philipp of Germany (1)Robert I, Count of FlandersSviatoslav II, Prince of Smolensk (1)
TISWHHYDK
Tommaso I, Count of Savoy (2)Willem III, Count of Holland and Hainaut (2)Yuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev (2)
Relationships through BIB and RIF are treated as examples and are not included in any statistics.
Most connections formed:BIVH (6)GGL, I5H, JDL, MIIC (3)BVM, HIIB, JBL, JIB, JIIH, LIIB, LIVE, OIIB, TIS, WHH (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Combined statistics 1453 part one: individuals forming more than one connection
CodeNameTotalIIIIIICodeNameTotalIIIIII
BIVHBéla IV of Hungary8-26LIIBLudwig II, Duke of Bavaria3-12
JDLJohn, Duke of Lancaster63-3MIGKMstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev32-1
F2SFederico II of Sicily43-1OIIBOtto II, Duke of Bavaria3-12
GGLGediminas, Grand Prince of Lithuania4-13WHHWillem III, Count of Holland and Hainaut3-12
I5HIstván V of Hungary4-13BVMBarnabò Visconti, Lord of Milan2--2
JIIHJan II, Count of Holland and Hainaut42-2F3CFernando III of Castile22--
MIICMeinhard II, Duke of Carinthia4-13JIBJohann of Bohemia2--2
TISTommaso I, Count of Savoy4-22JICJuan I of Castile21-1
YDKYuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev42-2LDBLouis I, Duke of Bourbon22--
CCVCharles, Count of Valois32-1LIVELudwig IV, Holy Roman Emperor2--2
HIIBHendrik II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier3-12RGKRoman, Grand Prince of Kiev22--
JBLJan I, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg3-12      
Peter

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Combined statistics 1453 part two: individuals forming only one connection
CodeNameIIIIIICodeNameIIIIII
AGLAlgirdas, Grand Prince of Lithuania-1-HIVLHethum IV, Lord of Lambron--1
AIBLAlbrecht I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg--1HVLHenryk V, Duke of Legnica--1
AIIAAlbrecht II, Duke of Austria-1-LIXFLouis IX of France1--
AIIHAndrás II of Hungary-1-MCBMarguerite, Countess of Blois--1
AIVSAmadeo IV, Count of Savoy-1-MGKMikhail, Grand Prince of Kiev1--
B3PBolesław III of Poland1--PGIPhilipp of Germany--1
CIINCharles II of Naples1--RIGRudolf I of Germany-1-
CPAConstance, Princess of Antioch--1SIISSviatoslav II, Prince of Smolensk--1
CVIFCharles VI of France1--TFLTedisio Fieschi, Count of Lavagna-1-
FIASFerrando I of Aragón--1     
Peter

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A note on posterities

Of these 14 sovereigns, ten have known posterity today (sort of, in one case), and six of these include all currently reigning sovereigns among their descendants. The six are Juan II of Castile, Charles VII of France, James II of Scotland, the Emperor Friedrich III, Kazimierz IV of Poland and Christian I of Denmark and Norway. Juan II, Friedrich III and Kazimierz IV are easily dealt with; the first was a maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Ferdinand I, previously identified as a universal ancestor of present-day royalty, the second a paternal great-grandfather, and the third the paternal grandfather of Ferdinand I’s wife. Christian I’s son and successor Hans has also previously been named as a universal ancestor.

Charles VII was the maternal grandfather of Catherine of Navarre, shown in the 1492 note to be a universal ancestress.* James II was of course an ancestor, twice actually, of James I and VI of England and Scotland, himself an ancestor of all current sovereigns except the Prince of Monaco, who descends legitimately from James II through his great-great-grandfather Prince Albert I’s Scottish noble bride (as well as from illegitimate children of James’s grandson, James IV).

Returning to Christian I, he was James IV’s maternal grandfather, a further way of establishing him as a general ancestor, and Anne of Denmark, wife of James I and VI, was paternally Christian I’s great-great-granddaughter and maternally the same, plus his great-great-great-great-granddaughter (through Hans) as well. The nine that descend from James I and VI naturally do so from Anne also, and Albert II of Monaco descends from Anne’s sister Elizabeth (as do all the others, since she was a great-great-grandmother of Jan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange, the most recent ancestor of all ten current sovereigns). I returned to Christian I to show that if a monarch of so long ago has royal descendants today at all they are likely to be descended in many, many ways, and also to establish rather than merely assert the universality of Hans.

To do the same for Ferdinand I, his daughter Archduchess Maria was a 3 x great-grandmother of Landgravine Marie Luise of Hesse-Cassel, the wife of Jan Willem Friso. Incidentally my efforts in post #6 of the 1517 thread to trace Albert II from William the Silent’s third wife Charlotte de Bourbon are further rendered unnecessary, as Landgravine Marie Luise was her 3 x great-granddaughter too; a further illustration of multiplicity of descents, and Charlotte was a good bit more recent than Christian I.

What of the other four sovereigns with surviving posterity? To make what would otherwise be a very lengthy post more digestible, I will deal with them in the next post, and with collateral descent from those without descendants of their own today in the post after that.


* Descents from Charles VII that are less universally shared are through his daughters Charlotte and Marguerite. Their mother was not the Queen, Marie of Anjou, but Agnès Sorel, the first mistress of a French king to have an official position as such at court. The present-day monarchs of Spain, Belgium and Luxembourg descend from them both by several routes, the Prince of Monaco (and the Duke of Cambridge) from Marguerite alone by another, and the Prince of Liechtenstein from Charlotte alone by one of the routes to the first three. It is that particularly piquant route that I want to consider.
Charlotte married Jacques de Brézé, comte de Maulevrier, and their son Louis married Diane de Poitiers, the great love of Henri II’s life and another official royal mistress. Her children however were with Louis, and their daughter Louise made a grand match to Claude de Lorraine, duc d’Aumale. Their granddaughter Anne married Henri de Savoie, duc de Nemours, and their son Charles Amédée’s wife was Elisabeth de Bourbon, daughter of César de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, son of Henri IV by yet another official mistress of a French king, Gabrielle d’Estrées.
Their daughter Maria Giovanna was thus descended from illegitimate children of two French kings, and from no less than three of the most famous of the official mistresses that became an institution at that court. To make things perfect, her granddaughter Princess Marie Adélaïde of Savoy married Louis, duc de Bourgogne, and was the mother of Louis XV, whence comes the descent to the four present-day monarchs. The three of those first mentioned add descent from illegitimate children of Louis XIV by Madame de Montespan, one of his most celebrated official mistresses, so the overall count of these in their ancestries is four.

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A note on posterities – part two

The four sovereigns with surviving posterity today, but not so far as I can ascertain including all current sovereigns among their descent, are Alfonso V of Aragón, Jean II of Cyprus, Afonso V of Portugal and Karl VIII of Sweden. To take the easy one first, Afonso V’s posterity is identical to that of his son João II, and indeed that of his illegitimate grandson Jorge de Lancastre. This was investigated in exhaustive detail in post #7 of the 1492 thread, to which I refer those who may be interested. I will though add a point not made in that post; in addition to being the sole conduit for descent from Afonso V and João II, Jorge de Lancastre also is for the great Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, Afonso V’s uncle, father-in-law, regent during his minority and, ultimately, victim, as explained in the introduction.

Afonso V’s contemporary and namesake Alfonso V also depends on illegitimate issue for his posterity, his own rather than his son’s in this case. He was more fortunate than João II, who tried in vain to have Jorge accepted as his successor, since while Afonso V was succeeded in Aragón by his brother Chuan II, in Naples it was by his illegitimate son Ferrante I. The posterity of Ferrante I is very extensive, as indeed is that of his similarly illegitimate half-sister Eleanora, but while all the Catholic sovereigns of today descend from Ferrante I have been unable to find that any of the Protestant ones do (though one will, as the Duke of Cambridge descends through his mother).

As the Reformation would not be for another 64 years this exclusively Catholic descent from Ferrante I, and also Alfonso V, may seem surprising. The explanation would seem to be that Ferrante’s posterity was confined mainly to Italian lines until after the Reformation, and the religious divide, had become accomplished fact.

Jean II is the ‘sort of’ mentioned in the first part. Of his two legitimate children, both daughters, one died young and the other, Charlotte, succeeded him as Queen of Cyprus but herself only had one child, who died in infancy. However Jean also had an illegitimate son, James, who succeeded in displacing Charlotte, reigning as Jacques II. A thorough scoundrel, he had been made Archbishop of Nicosia aged 16 and deprived of his archiepiscopate aged 17, having murdered a court official. His indulgent father however pardoned him and returned him to his seat.

If he was ever ordained, this didn’t seem to be a barrier to him marrying, because that is what he did, several years after seizing his half-sister’s throne. The only child of the marriage, Jacques III, died young, but Jacques II also had four other children as illegitimate as himself, of which at least two had issue of their own. It would appear from his Wikipedia article that descent from them survives to the present day, but I have no means of tracing it, which is why the qualification in the preceding paragraph’s first sentence. As far as current sovereigns are concerned, while they may or may not be descended from Jean II they all certainly are from his sister Anne, wife of Louis, Duke of Savoy.

That leaves Karl VIII. He had several children and his posterity was extensive, but for a long time confined to the Swedish nobility. According to Wikipedia, Christian IX of Denmark was the first sovereign to descend from him, centuries later. As over the whole period equal marriage laws were, generally speaking, strictly observed, this seems likely. Anyway I have decided to accept this reasonable-seeming assertion rather than spend many hours checking, probably with the same result in the end. As I can’t see any route for descent from Karl VIII to other more recent sovereigns apart from the way it came to Christian IX, it seems very likely that only the monarchs of Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Luxembourg, who are the latter’s descendants, and the King of Sweden, who is descended from Christian IX’s brother, have that descent, though in the next generation the King of Spain will also.

And just how did it come to Christian IX? I will trace this in two stages, first to Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Karl VIII’s 9 x great-grandson, and then to Christian IX, his grandson. The second link actually goes through Christian IX’s brother Friedrich all the way to Carl XVI Gustaf (the first Swedish monarch ever to be of Karl VIII’s descent, a gap of 503 years before anyone of his blood occupied his throne), showing Christian IX himself on the way.

Peter

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A note on posterities – part three

Well, that was the partials and don’t-knows. Last up are the not-at-alls. These are Henry VI of England, Vasily II of Moscow, Ladislaus V of Hungary and the Eastern Emperor Constantine XI. To take these in order, Henry VI had only one child, his son Edward, Prince of Wales. He was married, to Anne Neville, daughter of the Earl of Warwick (she was later the wife of Richard III, who may have murdered her) but there was no issue before Edward was killed in battle with the Yorkists – or, according to some accounts, taken prisoner and murdered after the battle was over. His father certainly was; for years a Yorkist prisoner, while his son was free he was safe, as killing Henry would just have meant a new king at large. With his son dead, that same Richard III, then still just Duke of Gloucester, hastened to London with the news, and Henry VI met a violent death within hours of his arrival.

Having survived his only child, albeit by days only, that death was without remaining posterity. However, all current sovereigns are descended from his mother’s second marriage, whereby she was the grandmother of Henry VII of England, and the Queen is descended from his father’s full brother Humphrey, an earlier Duke of Gloucester, via the latter’s illegitimate daughter Antigone. Therefore the full set of his descents are preserved in one current monarch, and half of them in the other nine.

Vasily II had a number of children and many descendants, but no further descent is recorded from him after the 6th generation. What descent, then, can we find from the important line of the Grand Princes of Moscow? Ideally, it would be from a sibling of his, as his mother was of considerable genealogical interest also. She was the only child of Vytautas the Great, Grand Prince of Lithuania. He was baptised Catholic as an adult, but his mother Birutè was an actual pagan goddess, deified after death and with quite a strong and long-lasting cult. Though there are no other routes for descent from Vytautas there are for Birutè, and his also important father Kęstutis. It would be nice, though, to get descent from him, her, their remarkable son and the Moscow Grand Princes to present-day royalty all in one neat package.

I can oblige, though just with descent to the monarchs of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Belgium, the other four are still out in the cold.* Though only as far as the Grand Princes and Vytautas himself are concerned: Barbara Zápolya, established in the 1558 note as a universal ancestress, deals adequately with Kęstutis and Birutè. Interesting to know that all modern monarchs are descended from a (comparatively) recent pagan deity.

Ladislaus V’s childless death aged seventeen left his father’s posterity to his sisters Anna and Elisabeth, both ancestresses of all current sovereigns. Elisabeth was the wife of Kazimierz IV of Poland and the mother of all his children, see the first part of this note for him. Anna married Wilhelm III, Landgrave of Thuringia, and had two daughters, the elder of whom, Margarete, was the wife of Johann II of Brandenburg. While Elisabeth was seen as heiress of Hungary and Bohemia, Anna was of Luxembourg. Margarete was Anna's heiress, and although the Hohenzollerns did not obtain Luxembourg through her they never forgot that they had a claim, finally made good at the Congress of Vienna centuries later.

More directly for our concerns, Johann and Margarete's daughter Anna married Frederik I of Denmark and was the grandmother of Frederik II, father of the sisters Anne and Elisabeth discussed in part one of the note. Finally, though married twice Constantine XI had no children, so again we are obliged to look for descent from siblings. The best-known such descent was from his brother Thomas to the Moscow Grand Princes and later Tsars of Russia, but as we know is a non-starter, or rather non-finisher. That was through Thomas’s daughter Zoe, what about her siblings?

What indeed? Some further background is given in this post. Though it is only the Prince of Liechtenstein, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and King of Belgium, the first post I linked does demonstrate that there are monarchs of the present day who preserve in themselves the descents of the very last Eastern Roman Emperor.


* After some more research, the King of Spain can come into the warm, as can all descendants of Louis XV. This link goes from Vasily I, father of Vasily II, to Katarzyna, Countess Opalinska, mother of Louis XV’s Queen, Marie Leszczynska. To trace  to Maximilian I Joseph in the same way, this link goes to his mother, Maria Francisca, Countess Palatine of Sulzbach. The Princes Olelkowicz-Slucki mentioned in the linked post were by the way not only distinguished, they were Gediminids, descendants of Vladimir, a son of Algirdas who was given Kiev as his hereditary principality, and several times contended for the Lithuanian throne, albeit without success.

Peter

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