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Peter

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[Byzantine1355] 

Introduction part one – the sovereigns

The 1389 Battle of Kosovo, the famous Field of Blackbirds, is usually seen as the greatest and final calamity in the history of medieval Serbia, the gaggle of feuding despotates and principalities which Serbia had become briefly making common cause against the Ottomans only to be utterly crushed and have their lands placed under the Turkish heel, where they would remain for the next five centuries.

That is what happened, but what led to it is, in the opinion of many historians, far more significant. Eighteen years earlier, on 27th September 1371*, the far less well known Battle of Maritsa sounded the death knell of the once-great Serbian kingdom, which under the vigorous and able Nemanjić dynasty had for two centuries been one of the major powers of south-eastern Europe, and left Serbia in chaos. Only sixteen years previously the kingdom had been at its peak, its territories stretching from the Adriatic to the Aegean due to the many victories of Stephen Uroš IV, known as Silni, ‘the Mighty’. The map above shows the legacy he left his son Stephen Uroš V, whose corresponding epithet was Nejaki, ‘the Weak’.

Universally praised for his gentle and humane character, and not necessarily incapable, Stephen Uroš V nevertheless was not the man to hold his father’s conquests together. Before many years passed most of the south of the realm broke away altogether under his half-uncle Simeon, while elsewhere local lords ruled without reference and sometimes even lip service to the King.  The strongest of the lords, Vukašin Mrnjavčević, first compelled Stephen Uroš V to crown him co-king, then to associate his son, later to be famous in legend as Prince Marko, as Young King, the title of the heir.

Despite not having one drop of Nemanjić blood, perhaps Marko might indeed have held the kingship he claimed on Stephen Uroš V’s childless death. But there was no kingdom left to claim, and all Marko ever ruled was one part of one province of the former realm. As night fell over Maritsa, Vukašin Mrnjavčević, his brother Despot Jovan Ugleješa, scores more Serbian nobles and thousands of knights and common troopers lay dead, and the river for which the battle is named ran red with Serbian blood. The Ottoman forces they had faced were numerically far weaker, but the Turks were the great masters of warfare in that age, and their tactical superiority had achieved what was rather a massacre than a victory.

His army all but gone, the nobility decimated, the guiding hand which despite his quasi-usurpation Mrnjavčević had at least provided removed, Stephen Uroš V’s hollow shell of kingship was even thinner than before. Less than two months later he died, and with him any last vestige of the medieval Serbian monarchy.

×××

Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria was also to be the last King until modern times of a once-great, prosperous and cultured kingdom.  Founded in the seventh century by Turkic invaders, the Bulgars, over time the Turkic ruling class became assimilated into the Slavic population, and under Boris I the khanate became a kingdom, the state religion changed (not without bloodshed, as many of the aristocracy opposed the move and were consequently executed) from shamanism to Orthodox Christianity and Bulgaria, long a power in the region, became dominant. A long period of prosperity under Boris I and his son Simeon I and grandson Peter I saw medieval Bulgarian civilisation reach its apotheosis, leaving a cultural legacy which includes Old Church Slavonic and the Cyrillic script, first developed in Bulgaria under Boris I.

Peter’s son Roman however failed of issue, which was the end of the original dynasty. He left the throne to his general Samuel, a capable ruler who was however utterly defeated by the Eastern Emperor Basil I, and his realm subjugated. More than a century and a half later the brothers Theodore and Asen, nobles from Tarnovo, led a successful rebellion and established the Bulgarian kingdom anew, Theodore being crowned as Peter IV. Under his nephew Ivan Asen II, son of his brother Asen, the revived kingdom became again a great power of the region and there was a second cultural flowering, comparable to that under their great predecessors of previous centuries.

The twists and turns of the succession thereafter are dizzying, with tsars such as George Terter I appearing who had no discernible connection with previous rulers, but nevertheless the last of them, Ivan Sratsimir, was a descendant of Ivan Asen II, his 3 x great-grandson to be precise. He reigned in Vidin, in the west of Bulgaria, while his younger half-brother Ivan Shishman reigned in the east. The heir to their father Ivan Alexander had been Sratsimir’s full brother Michael Asen IV, but he fell fighting the Ottomans and Sratsimir then expected to be crowned co-ruler and heir. However Ivan Alexander’s choice fell on Shishman, son of his second marriage, to Sarah, a Jewish convert from Thessalonica.

Sratsimir promptly rebelled, declaring himself tsar in despite of his father, who made no moves against the son he had tried to disinherit, even aiding him against the Hungarians. Nevertheless Shishman succeeded in the greater part of the realm, and until his 1395 death at Turkish hands there were two tsars. Shishman’s former realm was absorbed into the Sultan’s dominions, and the Vidin tsardom was now all that was left of free Bulgaria. Following the calamitous Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 that too fell, Sratsimir meeting a similar fate to his brother’s.

Despite all the trials of the time, the age of Ivan Alexander and his sons saw a further flowering of the native Bulgarian culture that was soon to be extinguished forever. Shishman became remembered as a heroic figure, gallant, noble and wise and a tireless defender of Bulgaria, while his brother Sratsimir had no such glory attached to his name. Nevertheless as Sratsimir was the last tsar it seemed fitting that he rather than Shishman appear in the charts.

×××

The third and by far the oldest power in the region was the Eastern Empire, which at this date was under the intermittent reign of Emperor John V. Crowned Emperor aged eight, following the early death of his father Andronicus III, his childhood had been racked by civil wars, and Constantinople and its lands by plague, both of which had been to the empire’s great weakening.

The regent appointed by the dying Andronicus, his lifelong friend and ally John Kantakouzenos, was an admirable choice, wise, humane and loyal. The Empress Mother Anna of Savoy (of whom the great Cavafy wrote in his 1924 poem John Kantakouzenos Triumphs ’If only Lord Andronicus had never married her! Has she ever done anything good, shown any humanity?’) however distrusted him, suspecting quite without grounds that the elder John was planning to seize the throne for himself, and conspired with the Patriarch John XIV Kalekos and the chief minister Alexios Apokaukos to take over the regency.

John Kantakouzenos was forced in self-preservation to take the very step he never would have otherwise, and declare himself Emperor John VI. Six years of internecine warfare, which the Serbs, Bulgarians and, crucially, Ottomans all used for their gain, ended with John VI triumphantly enthroned. He did not however depose the teenage John V but reigned alongside him. The families, already akin, were joined by the marriage of John V and John VI’s daughter Helena, and there was some hope for a period of at least internal peace, in which the Empire could restore itself.

That hope was to be dashed by John V himself, who launched a second civil war in which he ultimately succeeded in overthrowing his father-in-law and consigning him to the monastery where he ended his days. During the conflict the Ottomans had, disastrously, gained their first foothold in continental Europe, and the rest of John V’s days were to be dominated by the ever-increasing threat they posed. As his son Manuel II would later do John V travelled around Europe seeking aid, but like his son returned empty-handed. Eventually he accepted vassalage to the Sultan Murad I, and was subsequently deposed by his indignant elder son Andronicus IV.

The Sultan aided John V to regain the throne, only for him to be deposed again, this time by his grandson John VII, son of Andronicus IV. John V was restored with Venetian aid this time but died the next year, still the vassal of the Sultan, as all succeeding Emperors were until Murad I’s great-great-grandson Mehmet II conquered Constantinople, killing John V’s grandson Constantine XI and extinguishing the Eastern Empire as finally as his forebears had the Serbian and Bulgarian kingdoms.

×××

It was not just the Ottomans extending their power to the north that troubled the Balkan realms, but also the King of Hungary extending his power to the south, partly in pursuit of his conflicts with Venice, partly with a view to forcing the Orthodox peoples of the Balkans to accept the Catholic faith, and partly simply for the enlargement of his realm.

Lajos I, the Great. King of Hungary, Poland and many other realms besides, fought during his long reign against Naples, which he conquered twice, Venice as aforesaid, Bohemia, Lithuania, the Mongol khanate, Wallachia, Bulgaria, Serbia and the Ottoman Sultan. Victorious almost everywhere, even against the all-conquering Turks, he was seen as the very pattern of a chivalrous medieval monarch. There were only three years out of the forty he spent on the throne when he was not on campaign, but Hungary itself was at peace under his firm rule, an island of stability, order and prosperity in an increasingly storm-tossed Europe, and his sobriquet can be considered to have been merited.

×××

In due course much of Lajos the Great’s heritage would be destroyed, as Hungary too was ravaged and ultimately conquered by the forces of the Sultan. The legacy of the Emperor Karl IV however endures today in the marvellously beautiful city of Prague, his royal capital as King of Bohemia, which he made the Empire’s capital also and endowed with many of its most famous monuments, from the Charles Bridge to St Vitus Cathedral, founding also the Charles University, still one of Europe’s leading universities. His father John the Blind had disliked his Bohemian realm and spent as little time there as possible, but Karl IV was quite the opposite, deeply devoted to the land of his birth and presiding over what was seen as its Golden Age.

His interest in German affairs was less, but he left a legacy there too, his Golden Bull regulating the succession of the Empire until its dissolution four and a half centuries later. And his interest in Italian affairs minimal, visiting the country only twice and briefly, once for his coronations as King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor and again to have his wife crowned Empress by Pope Urban V, whom he had reinstalled in Rome, bringing the Avignon Papacy to a temporary end which became permanent under Urban V’s successor Gregory XI. But such was his love for Bohemia and so well did he rule it that in his funeral oration he was called Pater Patriae, father of his country.

×××

There was a King and a Queen in Italy besides the Emperor, but they were not spouses but rather rivals. The King was Federico III of Sicily, and the Queen Giovanna I of Naples. Following the death of her father Charles, eldest son of King Robert the Wise of Naples, and the posthumous birth of Charles’s only other child, Giovanna’s sister Maria, Giovanna had become heiress apparent; as far as I know, the only heiress apparent to a royal throne in all the centuries before 1980, when with Sweden’s adoption of equal primogeniture Princess Victoria of Sweden became Crown Princess.

She was remarkable in other ways, too. A woman of great beauty, profoundly spiritual, an exceptionally capable and diligent ruler who cared deeply for her subjects, greatly enriched her realm and strictly maintained internal peace and order, she has nevertheless gone down in history, probably unjustly, as a scheming murderess.

Her marital career was by no means as successful as her personal rule was, and eventually plunged the kingdom into disaster. She had been married to her first husband Andrew, a brother of Lajos of Hungary, when she was seven and he was six. Their only child, the short-lived Charles Martel, was born twelve years later, but in the meantime relations between the couple had become poisoned by Giovanna‘s refusal to share the throne with her husband.

So when a group of conspirators violently murdered Andrew the Queen was widely seen as the guiding hand behind the conspiracy. There was and remains no evidence for this, and Giovanna submitted to trial by the Papal court and was exonerated, but nevertheless Lajos, vowing vengeance for his brother, invaded and conquered Naples. Giovanna fled to Provence, of which she was hereditary Countess, with her second husband, her cousin Louis of Taranto. A devastating outbreak of plague drove the Hungarians away and the Queen and King, as she had allowed Louis to be, returned and resumed their rule.

Louis died of plague and Giovanna resumed sole rule, which she maintained despite marrying twice more. That rule was ended by her second cousin Charles of Durazzo, who invaded with Hungarian support, seized the kingdom and had Giovanna murdered. Her body was put on public display in the city she had once ruled and after several days flung into a well, burial being denied as she was for political reasons excommunicate. Her two daughters by Louis of Taranto lived no longer than her son by Andrew of Hungary, and her other marriages had been without fruit, so there was no more living heritage of Giovanna than there is known grave.

×××

In the 1372 Treaty of Villeneuve Giovanna formally acknowledged the legitimate rule of Federico III over Sicily, though the title was still to be King of Trinacria, a provision which continued to be ignored outside Naples. Coming to the throne aged fourteen after the death from plague of his elder brother and predecessor Luigi, Federico ruled for 22 years more, troubled by incursions from Naples and further outbreaks of plague, and died leaving the kingdom to his sole legitimate child, his thirteen-year-old daughter Maria. Her death without surviving issue ended the separate Sicilian line and ultimately returned the kingdom to the Crown of Aragón, after a series of complicated evolutions in which Maria’s widower Martin the Younger continued to reign as Martin I, then died and was, uniquely as far as I am aware, succeeded by his father, Martin II of Sicily who was already Martin I of Aragón.

×××

In 1371 however this was all still to come, and the King of Aragón was Pero IV, father of Martin I/II of Aragón and Sicily and grandfather of Martin I of the latter. Known for reasons unclear to me as ‘the Ceremonious’, his fifty-year reign had by no means been easy, greatly troubled in its earlier years by the demands of the nobility for a lessening of the royal power and an increase of their own. Pero was actually held prisoner for a time by the Valencian Union, an association of the nobles of that kingdom. He escaped during an outbreak of plague and took a terrible vengeance, the molten metal of the bell used to summon meetings of the Union being poured down the throats of Union leaders.

After which his authority was not much challenged and he could busy himself in foreign warfare, which he did with some success, adding Majorca and the rest of the Balearic Islands to his dominions, acquiring territory in Greece and consolidating Aragonese control over Sardinia and Corsica. Through his wife Leonor of Sicily, sister of Federico III, he had two sons who succeeded him in turn, Chuan I and the previously mentioned Martin I, and then the succession passed through Pero IV’s daughter, another Leonor, to a branch of the House of Trástamara, already reigning in Castile.

×××

It had come to do so following the murder of the King, remembered in history as Pedro the Cruel, by his illegitimate half-brother Enrique, Count of Trástamara, and the latter’s ascension to the throne as Enrique II. Their father Alfonso XI was married twice, discarding his first wife in favour of his second, Maria of Portugal, Pedro’s mother. Maria in turn was neglected and spurned in favour of Alfonso’s beautiful mistress Eleanor de Guzman, mother of the future Enrique II and no fewer than eleven other sons of the King besides.

Alfonso’s treatment of his first wife caused insurrection in Castile, and of his second war both with Portugal and after his early death between his legitimate and illegitimate sons, the latter led by Enrique, the fourth but eldest surviving of them. After Pedro’s murder and Enrique’s accession war continued, with John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III of England, claiming the throne in right of his second wife Constance of Castile, elder of the two possibly legitimate daughters of Pedro the Cruel.

After Enrique II’s death the conflict was resolved through the marriage of Catherine of Lancaster, only surviving child of John and Constance, to the future Enrique III, son of Enrique II’s own son Juan I. The younger Enrique was the first heir to bear the title Prince of Asturias, modelled on the English heir apparent’s title of Prince of Wales and a specific requirement of the peace settlement.

Enrique II was buried in Toledo, where his tomb can still be seen today. The inscription on it reads in part: ‘Here lies the most adventurous and noble knight and king, the sweetly remembered Don Enrique, son of the late noble king Don Alfonso’. Another opinion might be that he was, quite literally, a murdering bastard. In fact he was brave and gallant and a capable King, and his fratricide could reasonably be excused by his half-brother and predecessor having executed his mother, Leonor de Guzman, and his younger twin brother Fadrique, who of course was Pedro’s brother too. Either way, the Crown of Castile, later of Spain, has remained (with interruptions) in the hands of his heirs to this day.

×××

Fernando I of Portugal in contrast was succeeded by no heir of his own, but rather by his illegitimate half-brother João of Aviz, who became King João I and is remembered far more fondly then his legitimate predecessor, last of the Burgundian line that had founded the kingdom 232 years before. Fernando engaged in repeated warfare with Castile, the crown of which he claimed following the death of Pedro the Cruel, and in settlement of the conflict the recently widowed Juan I of Castile, referred to above as the son and heir of Enrique II, married Beatrice, Fernando’s only legitimate child to survive infancy and thus his heiress.

Fernando's marriage had caused great scandal in Portugal and further afield. In an earlier peace settlement he had engaged to marry Enrique II’s daughter Leonor. Fernando’s Queen was indeed named Leonor, but she was not the one envisaged in the treaty. Shortly after completing the agreement Fernando began a passionate affair with the noblewoman Leonor Telles de Meneses, wife of João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro. A divorce was procured and the ‘wrong’ Leonor became Queen of Portugal.

As far as birth was concerned she certainly was not qualified for the post, and she soon proved herself even less suitable in other ways. She was no more faithful to her second husband than she had been to the first, was suspected not without reason of having plotted the murder of her own sister Maria, and as regent for her daughter following Fernando’s death betrayed her country, serving the interests of her Castilian paymasters rather than those of her native land. The idea of union with Castile was already anathema to most of the Portuguese people and nobility, and Leonor’s conduct made it even more unthinkable. Beatrice’s reign never became effective, and instead after two years of warfare, internal and external, the House of Aviz was left in possession of the throne.

×××

The rejected Leonor of Castile was married instead to the future Charles III of Navarre, son and heir of Charles II, becoming foremother of all future Navarrese monarchs. Not too many of which were particularly famous, at least until Henri III of Navarre became Henri IV of France, but the one then reigning was. Though ‘infamous’ might be the better word; this was Charles the Bad, and rarely has a sobriquet been more thoroughly deserved.

A murderer, a serial betrayer, an unworthy monarch who impoverished his kingdom and neglected it in his pursuit of the crown of France, all his schemes and plots and repeated treacheries came to nothing and he ended his days in Navarre, humiliated, impotent and universally hated. Though sources disagree on how it happened, his death, burned alive in his own palace, was understandably seen as divine judgement on one of the worst men ever to wear a crown.

×××

The man who actually wore the crown Charles the Bad so wanted was his brother-in-law Charles V of France, whose sobriquet was the considerably more creditable Charles the Wise. The first heir to bear the title of Dauphin, he had succeeded his father seven years previously, having been Regent for most of the preceding decade due to his father’s captivity in England. Third of the thirteen monarchs of the House of Valois, he was by most reckonings the best, victorious against England, rebuilding France’s devastated finances through his prudent management, founder of a professional army on the Turkish model, thus sparing France’s devastated countryside from further ravages by the mercenaries, hardly distinguishable from brigands, previous Kings had employed, and a great patron of architecture, literature and the arts. The contrast with his less than sagacious namesake of Navarre, his would-be supplanter, could hardly be starker.

×××

Charles V’s rise coincided with the waning of Edward III of England’s star, which until then had burned brightly indeed. The deaths of many of his close companions, men who had been with him from the beginning, the decline into terminal illness of his mighty son the Black Prince, and a perceptible diminution in Edward III’s own hitherto unflagging vigour and determination, all combined to make the last years of his reign an unworthy coda to the brilliance that had gone before.

He remains among the greatest of England’s kings, winner of several of its most famous victories, the first since the Conquest to use English as a language of government, effective founder of the enduring institution of Justices of the Peace, and founder also of England’s greatest order of chivalry, the Order of the Garter. Personally he was humane, with a reputation for clemency unusual for a monarch of that age, brave and skilled in war and skilled also in the arts of government. His family life was exemplary, and generally he was, as the historian Ian Mortimer called him, ‘the Perfect King’.

Earlier, revisionist historians had sullied a reputation that had stood undimmed since Edward III’s reign ended, calling him an irresponsible, reckless adventurer and warmonger among other things, but that view is now discredited and his high place in the long line of England’s monarchs generally accepted; a step or two below Alfred the Great and Elizabeth I perhaps, but that is surely an honourable enough position for any monarch to occupy.

×××

Another monarch who for a time had a poor reputation among historians but is now held in better regard is Robert II of Scotland. He did not become King until he was 55, a year older than his grandfather Robert I was when he died, but had already ruled the country for long periods while his uncle (who was nevertheless eight years younger) David II was first in exile in France then later a captive in England.

Brought up Gaelic-speaking on the Stewart lands in the west of Scotland, this heritage did not make for a comfortable relationship with the mostly English- or French-speaking aristocracy, but then few Scottish monarchs had that anyway. He ruled shrewdly and well, showing a concern for all parts of his kingdom, not just the Lowlands on which David II had focussed, but in 1384 would lose power to his son and heir John, Earl of Carrick, whose incompetent rule led to him in turn being shunted aside for his younger brother Robert, at that date Earl of Fife but later created Duke of Albany, who ruled better but was to earn a grim reputation for his ambiguous conduct in the succeeding two reigns.

Robert II continued to reign and so the deterioration in the kingdom’s position was laid at his door. It is hard to see why, as his surrender of power was not voluntary and under his personal rule Scotland had been prosperous and for the most part settled and peaceful. There is not too much more that can be asked of any King, apart from ensuring the continuation of the dynasty. This he did perhaps a little too well, fathering four sons and six daughters by his first wife and another two of each by his second, plus at least eight illegitimate children by various mistresses. But the troubles that arose among his sons and grandsons also cannot fairly be laid at the door of what seems to me one of Scotland’s better Kings.

×××

Anyone still with me will be glad to learn that there are only five more monarchs to consider, and I intend to be fairly brief with them all, going from Denmark through the other Scandinavian realms, east to Russia then south all the way to the Mediterranean and Cyprus.

Denmark’s King was Valdemar IV, then thirty-one years into a reign which would continue for four more. For eight years before his election there was no King at all, Denmark beggared by Valdemar’s feeble father Christopher II and feckless uncle Erik VI and its lands parcelled out among German mortgagees. This was a situation Valdemar was determined to remedy, which he did with ruthlessness, not infrequent treachery and unfailing energy. The first two qualities plus the oppressive taxes he levied so as to pay off mortgages made him detested during his life, but after his death he was recognised as the restorer and renewer of the Danish kingdom, his harsh medicine a necessary remedy for the parlous state he found but did not leave it in.

Valdemar’s counterpart in Norway was Haakon VI, his son-in-law through marriage to Valdemar’s daughter Margrete, later to be famous as Margrete I of Denmark, effective ruler of all three Scandinavian realms. Haakon was born in Sweden, his father Magnus IV/VII being King there as well as in Norway, but raised in the latter realm, to which although second son he was always intended to be heir. The childless death from plague of his elder brother Erik however made him heir to both realms, but then Sweden was lost to Albrecht of Mecklenburg, the next monarch to be considered. The rest of Haakon’s life was filled with unceasing and unsuccessful warfare to recover the lost kingdom, the strain of which probably contributed to his early death aged only forty.

The aforesaid Albrecht, Haakon’s first cousin through his mother, a sister of King Magnus, was the only King (though there has also been a regnant Queen, the late Juliana of the Netherlands, and several Queens Consort, the most famous of which were probably Louise of Prussia and Charlotte of Great Britain) in the long history of the House of Mecklenburg, which uniquely among surviving German ruling houses is of Slavic origin. Having come to power in a coup organised by his father, Albrecht II of Mecklenburg, the younger Albrecht managed to occupy Sweden’s unstable throne for a quarter of a century, though part of the realm remained in Norwegian hands and the struggle from Albrecht’s viewpoint was as unceasing as it was from that of Haakon VI, albeit more successful. However Haakon’s widow Margrete I triumphed where her late husband had failed, and Albrecht ended his days back in Mecklenburg, of which he was Duke in succession to his father.

Whereas Dmitry of Vladimir and Moscow’s predecessors had followed a wise policy of subservience to the Khan of the Golden Horde, Dmitry had the wisdom to recognise that the time for that policy had passed, gaining his sobriquet Donskoy from his great victory over the forces of the Khan at the 1380 Battle of Kullkovo, fought beside the River Don. Founder of the Kremlin, he left another enduring legacy, all the Grand Princes of Vladimir and Moscow and Tsars of Russia down to Feodor I being of his line, and he being the only one of these last five monarchs with crowned, or indeed any, descendants today.

The very last is Pierre II of Cyprus, who came to his throne aged fifteen following the murder of his father Pierre I by disaffected knights. Pierre I had been a strong King, like his father Hugues IV, but Pierre II was not. During his reign nearly all the kingdom’s remaining territories in Asia Minor were lost to the Turks, along with parts of the island itself to the Genoese, including the key port of Famagusta. When his uncle Jacques I was released from Genoese captivity following Pierre’s childless death and his own succession it was a dispiriting legacy he returned to, the once strong and prosperous island realm in the terminal decline that would end in Turkish conquest.

And I will now end this part of the introduction. The second part will at least be far shorter, since it follows the pattern of 1330 and much that was explained there doesn’t have to be explained again here.


* Depending on the source, you will also see the date given as the 26th and the 28th; I went for the one in the middle.

 Both brothers were connected only through their father, Sratsimir’s Wallachian mother offering no more help than the Jewess Sarah, so if you want to see Shishman’s connections you need only look at Sratsimir’s.

Peter

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Introduction part II – the relationships

As in 1330, there was no possibility of posting the single 19-monarch chart with which I began, and with no religious option available, the Catholic/Orthodox ratio being 15/4, I had to find some other basis for splitting it. I again tried the obvious solution of accession order, and it again produced no satisfactory result. So then I tried the 1330 solution of two kinship groups, for convenience called ‘Western’ and ‘Eastern’ but, although the geographical terms are roughly right, in reality a ‘close’ and a ‘distant’ group; that is the Western group were close kin to each other and not to the Eastern group members, and the Eastern group were only distantly related either to each other or the Western group.

That too is only roughly right. Where I was not really undecided at all over which group to assign 1330 sovereigns to, in 1371 there were several hard cases, and in fact the closest relationship in any of the charts is between a Western and Eastern group member. But if you look at the table below, which following the example of 1330 analyses relationships within and between the two groups, you will see that it does reflect the different character of the groups outlined above, and I feel that my choices are reasonably well vindicated by it, even if not as thoroughly as in the earlier year. 

R'shipTIIIIII%TIIIIII
U/N  1  00  1U/N   1  0  0100
1c  6  42  01c  46733   0
2c41286  72c246815 17
3c19  80113c1142  0 58
4c22  50174c1323  0 77
5c25  06195c15  024 76
6c22  09136c13  041 59
7c23  06177c14  026 74
8c  8  0  3  58c  5  038 63
9c  2  0  2  09c  1  0100   0
 169453490 100272053

Again, T is the original 19-monarch chart, I is Western group amongst themselves, II is Eastern group amongst themselves, and III the two groups with each other. The figures on the left are actual numbers and on the right the percentages these form; for example, 4% of the total relationships are as first cousins, and chart I contains 67% of these.

It is actually four charts that follow. Due to the very large number of multiple relationships in chart III, which made it so deep that it would have been very unwieldy to navigate on-screen, I split it further into charts IIIa and IIIb. These are regarded in the statistics as just one chart, and only the heading III appears either in the table above or in the combined statistics that follow the charts, the reference being to the original chart III of which the two seen here are subsets. Similarly, no statistical summary appears in the key to IIIa, instead there is one for the two charts together following IIIb. The figures in brackets after the names in the keys do however refer to the individual chart.

The combined statistics follow IIIb and its key as said, themselves appearing in two parts, then there will for once be a single-part note on posterities. A table detailing the relationship of the Eastern group members Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria and Robert II of Scotland, who were far too remotely akin for any of my usual methods of linking to work, concludes the thread apart from any ensuing discussion, which I don’t expect but then I didn’t for 1330 either. If an explanation of how to read the charts is needed, one is available here

Peter

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Relationships of the European sovereigns at 27 September 1371, the day of the Battle of Maritsa (part I)
Reigning MonarchEdward IIIPero IVLajos IGiovanna ICharles IIFederico IIICharles VFernando IPierre IIEnrique II
Edward III of England3c CIA3c1r RBVP2c P3F1c1r PIVF3c CIA2c1r P3F2c1r F3C2c3r H3E2c2r F3C
Pero IV of Aragón3c CIA2c CIIN2c CIIN
2c P3A
3c1r CIA2c CIIN
2c P3A
2c1r CIIN1c1r C2A1c1r C2A2c1r P3A
Lajos I of Hungary3c1r RBVP2c CIIN2c CIIN4c L8F
4c RBVP
2c CIIN2c1r CIIN
2c1r RIG
2c1r CIIN2c1r CIIN4c1r AIIH
Giovanna I of Naples2c P3F2c CIIN
2c P3A
2c CIIN2c P3F2c CIIN
2c P3A
1c1r CCV2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
2c1r P3A
Charles II of Navarre1c1r PIVF3c1r CIA4c L8F
4c RBVP
2c P3F3c1r CIA2c RIIB4c CIA2c1r PLC4c CIA
Federico III of Sicily3c CIA2c CIIN
2c P3A
2c CIIN2c CIIN
2c P3A
3c1r CIA2c1r CIIN2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
2c1r P3A
Charles V of France2c1r P3F2c1r CIIN2c1r CIIN
2c1r RIG
1c1r CCV2c RIIB2c1r CIIN3c CIIN3c CIIN4c CIA
Fernando I of Portugal2c1r F3C1c1r C2A2c1r CIIN2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
4c CIA2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
3c CIIN2c C2A2c DPA
2c SIVC
Pierre II of Cyprus2c3r H3E1c1r C2A2c1r CIIN2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
2c1r PLC2c1r CIIN
2c1r P3A
3c CIIN2c C2A3c P3A
Enrique II of Castile2c2r F3C2c1r P3A4c1r AIIH2c1r P3A4c CIA2c1r P3A4c CIA2c DPA
2c SIVC
3c P3A
Peter

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Reply with quote  #4 
Key:  
AIIHC2ACCV
András II of Hungary (1)Chaime II of Aragón (3)Charles, Count of Valois (1)
CIACIINDPA
Chaime I of Aragón (7)Charles II of Naples (17)Diniz of Portugal (1)
F3CH3EL8F
Fernando III of Castile (2)Henry III of England (1)Louis VIII of France (1)
P3AP3FPIVF
Pero III of Aragón (11)Philippe III of France (3)Philippe IV of France (1)
PLCRBVPRIG
Philippe, Lord of Conches (1)R Berenguer V, C of Provence (2)Rudolf I of Germany (1)
RIIBSIVC 
Robert II, D of Burgundy (1)Sancho IV of Castile (1) 
Most connections formed:CIIN (17)P3A (11)CIA (7)C2A, P3F (3)F3C, RBVP (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #5 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at 27 September 1371, the day of the Battle of Maritsa (part II)
Reigning MonarchValdemar IVJohn VHaakon VIKarl IVS Uroš VDmitryAlbrechtI SratsimirRobert II
Valdemar IV of Denmark5c1r A3S2c1r WIIR5c2r D3L6c2r BIIH
6c2r MIGK
6c1r MIGK
6c1r YDK
2c1r BIP
2c1r WIIR
9c JCO8c HIE
John V, Eastern Emperor5c1r A3S2c1r GCF2c JBL5c1r I2A7c1r MIGK5c3r A3S7c1r TKA6c1r BIVS
Haakon VI of Norway2c1r WIIR2c1r GCF2c1r GCF5c2r BVH
5c2r I2A
6c2r YDK1c EDS7c2r TKA6c2r HEH
Karl IV, Holy Roman Emperor5c2r D3L2c JBL2c1r GCF5c I2A6c1r RIK2c1r RIG7c TKA6c1r BIVS
Stephen Uroš V of Serbia6c2r BIIH
6c2r MIGK
5c1r I2A5c2r BVH
5c2r I2A
5c I2A7c1r MIGK6c2r ADA
6c2r BIIH
1c KPV8c1r B3CH
Dmitry of Vladimir6c1r MIGK
6c1r YDK
7c1r MIGK6c2r YDK6c1r RIK7c1r MIGK6c2r YDK9c1r YIK
Albrecht of Sweden2c1r BIP
2c1r WIIR
5c3r A3S1c EDS2c1r RIG6c2r ADA
6c2r BIIH
6c2r YDK7c2r TKA8c1r HIE
Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria9c JCO7c1r TKA7c2r TKA7c TKA1c KPV7c2r TKA13c3r HIG
Robert II of Scotland8c HIE6c1r BIVS6c2r HEH6c1r BIVS8c1r B3CH9c1r YIK8c1r HIE13c3r HIG
Note: the connection between Ivan Sratsimir and Robert II is not directly linked, but is detailed in tabular form following the note on posterities, with verifying links included.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #6 
Key:  
A3SADAB3CH
Amedeo III, Count of Savoy (2)Andronikos Dukas Angelos (1)Baudouin III, Count of Hainaut (1)
BIIHBIPBIVS
Béla II of Hungary (2)Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania (1)Bernard IV of St Valéry (2)
BVHD3LEDS
Baudouin V, Count of Hainaut (1)Dedo III, Margrave of Lusatia (1)Erik, Duke of Södermanland (1)
GCFHEHHIE
Guy, Count of Flanders (2)Henry, Earl of Huntingdon (1)Henry I of England (2)
HIGI2AJBL
Heinrich I of GermanyIsaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor (3)Jan I, D of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1)
JCOKPVMIGK
John Comnenus (1)Keratsa of Vidin (1)Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (4)
RIGRIKTKA
Rudolf I of Germany (1)Rostislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)Theodora Komnena Angelina (4)
WIIRYDKYIK
Wizlaw II of Rügen (2)Yuri Dolgorukiy, Gd Prince of Kiev (3)Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)
The one relationship through Heinrich I of Germany is treated as an example and is excluded from statistics.
Most connections formed: MIGK,TKA (4)  I2A,YDK (3)A3S, BIIH, BIVS, GCF, HIE, WIIR (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #7 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at 27 September 1371, the day of the Battle of Maritsa (part IIIa)
Reigning MonarchValdemar IV
of Denmark
John V
E Emperor
Haakon VI
of Norway
Karl IV
HR Emperor
S Uroš V
of Serbia
Dmitry
of Vladimir
Albrecht
of Sweden
I Sratsimir
of Bulgaria
Robert II
of Scotland
Edward III of England4c2r HIIE3c1r TIS2c2r H3E4c HIIB5c1r B3H
5c1r I2A
5c1r PCE
7c MIGK4c3r HIIE7c1r TKA6c2r HIE
6c2r HLC
Pero IV of Aragón5c1r RBIVB3c I5H4c1r L8F
4c1r RBVP
4c BIVH5c1r B3H
5c1r PCE
7c MIGK6c1r BIIH
6c1r BMI
6c1r HIIE
6c1r RBIVB
7c1r TKA8c B3CH
8c HIE
Lajos I of Hungary4c1r OGP3c I5H4c1r L8F
4c1r RBVP
2c RIG5c1r B3H6c RIK
6c YDK
2c1r RIG7c TKA8c B3CH
8c HIE
Giovanna I of Naples5c1r RBIVB3c I5H3c JIIB4c BIVH
4c HIIB
5c1r B3H
5c1r PCE
5c1r I2A
7c MIGK6c1r B3H
6c1r BMI
6c1r HIIE

6c1r RBIVB
7c1r TKA6c2r HEH
Note: the relationship not directly linked for Giovanna I of Naples and Albrecht of Sweden can be seen here.
Peter

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Reply with quote  #8 
Key:  
B3CHB3HBIIH
Baudouin III, Count of Hainaut (2)Béla III of Hungary (5)Béla II of Hungary (1)
BIVHBMIH3E
Béla IV of Hungary (2)Berthold I, Margrave of Istria (2)Henry III of England (1)
HEHHIEHIIB
Henry, Earl of Huntingdon (1)Henry I of England (3)Hendrik II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier (2)
HIIEHLCI2A
Henry II of England (4)Hugues de Clermont, Lord of Creil (1)Isaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor (2)
I5HJIIBL8F
István V of Hungary (3)Jean II, Duke of Brittany (1)Louis VIII of France (2)
MIGKOGPPCE
Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (3)Odon, Duke of Greater Poland (1)Pierre of Courtenay, Latin Emperor (3)
RBIVBRBVPRIG
Ramon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona (4)Ramon Berenguer V, C of Provence (2)Rudolf I of Germany (2)
RIKTISTKA
Rostislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)Tommaso I, Count of Savoy (1)Theodora Komnena Angelina (4)
YDK  
Yuri Dolgorukiy, Gd Prince of Kiev (1)  
Peter

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Reply with quote  #9 
Relationships of the European sovereigns at 27 September 1371, the day of the Battle of Maritsa (part IIIb)
Reigning MonarchValdemar IV
of Denmark
John V
E Emperor
Haakon VI
of Norway
Karl IV
HR Emperor
S Uroš V
of Serbia
Dmitry
of Vladimir
Albrecht
of Sweden
I Sratsimir
of Bulgaria
Robert II
of Scotland
Charles II of Navarre5c2r RBIVB3c H3BL2c PLC3c H3BL5c1r I2A7c1r MIGK6c1r HIIE7c1r TKA6c BIVS
Federico III of Sicily4c HIA3c I5H4c1r L8F
4c1r RBVP
4c BIVH5c1r B3H
5c1r PCE
6c1r YDK4c1r B3S7c1r TKA8c B3CH
8c HIE
Charles V of France5c2r RBIVB2c1r JBL2c2r GCFN JIB5c1r I2A6c2r RIK3c RIG7c1r TKA6c BIVS
Fernando I of Portugal4c1r SIP3c1r I5H5c L8F
5c RBVP
4c PGI5c I2A7c1r MIGK5c1r SIP7c TKA8c HIE
Pierre II of Cyprus5c2r RBIVB3c1r HIVL
3c1r I5H
2c1r PLC4c1r BIVH6c B3H
6c PCE
7c1r MIGK6c2r BIIH
6c2r BMI
7c2r TKA6c3r HEH
Enrique II of Castile4c1r SIP5c AIIH
5c PGI
5c1r A8C
5c1r PGI
5c1r SIP
4c1r PGI5c1r I2A7c1r MIGK5c1r SIP7c1r TKA8c HIE
Peter

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Reply with quote  #10 
Key:  
A8CAIIHB3CH
Alfonso VIII of Castile (1)András II of Hungary (1)Baudouin III, Count of Hainaut (1)
B3HB3SBIIH
Béla III of Hungary (2)Bernhard III, Duke of Saxony (1)Béla II of Hungary (1)
BIVHBIVSBMI
Béla IV of Hungary (2)Bernard IV of St Valéry (2)Berthold I, Margrave of Istria (1)
GCFH3BLHEH
Guy, Count of Flanders (1)Hendrik III, Duke of Brabant and Lothier (2)Henry, Earl of Huntingdon (1)
HIAHIEHIIE
Heinrich I, Count of Anhalt (1)Henry I of England (3)Henry II of England (1)
HIVLI2AI5H
Hethum IV, Lord of Lambron (1)Isaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor (4)István V of Hungary (3)
JBLJIBL8F
Jan I, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1)Jan of Bohemia (1)Louis VIII of France (2)
MIGKPCEPGI
Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (4)Pierre of Courtenay, Latin Emperor (2)Philipp of Germany (4)
PLCRBIVBRBVP
Philippe, Lord of Conches (2)Ramon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona (3)Ramon Berenguer V, C of Provence (2)
RIGRIKSIP
Rudolf I of Germany (1)Rostislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)Sancho I of Portugal (5)
TKAYDK 
Theodora Komnena Angelina (6)Yuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev (1) 
Most connections formed:TKA (10)B3H, MIGK, RBIVB (7)HIE, I2A, I5H (6)HIIE, PCE, SIP (5)BIVH, L8F, PGI, RBVP (4)B3CH, BMI, RIG (3)
BIIH, BIVS, H3BL, HEH, HIIB, PLC, RIK, YDK (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #11 
Combined statistics 1371 part one: individuals forming three or more connections
CodeNameTotalIIIIIICodeNameTotalIIIIII
CIINCharles II of Naples1717--SIPSancho I of Portugal  5--  5
TKATheodora Komnena Angelina14-410YDKYuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev  5-3  2
MIGKMstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev11-4  7B3CHBaudouin III, Count of Hainaut  4-1  3
P3APero III of Aragón1111--BIIHBéla II of Hungary  4-2  2
I2AIsaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor  9-3  6BIVHBéla IV of Hungary  4--  4
HIEHenry I of England  8-2  6BIVSBernard IV of St Valéry  4-2  2
B3HBéla III of Hungary  7--  7PGIPhilipp of Germany  4--  4
CIAChaime I of Aragón  77--BMIBerthold I, Margrave of Istria  3--  3
RBIVBRamon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona  7--  7C2AChaime II of Aragón  33--
I5HIstván V of Hungary  6--  6GCFGuy, Count of Flanders  3-2  1
RBVPRamon Berenguer V, C of Provence  62-  4HEHHenry, Earl of Huntingdon  3-1  2
HIIEHenry II of England  5--  5P3FPhilippe III of France  33--
L8FLouis VIII of France  51-  4PLCPhilippe, Lord of Conches  31-  2
PCEPierre of Courtenay, Latin Emperor  5--  5RIKRostislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev  3-1  2
RIGRudolf I of Germany  511  3      
Peter

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Reply with quote  #12 
Combined statistics 1371 part two: individuals forming under three connections
CodeNameTotalIIIIIICodeNameTotalIIIIII
A3SAmedeo III, Count of Savoy  2-2-DPADiniz of Portugal  11--
AIIHAndrás II of Hungary  21-1EDSErik, Duke of Södermanland  1-1-
F3CFernando III of Castile  22--HIAHeinrich I, Count of Anhalt  1-- 1
H3BLHendrik III, Duke of Brabant and Lothier  2--2HIVLHethum IV, Lord of Lambron  1-- 1
H3EHenry III of England  21-1HLCHugues de Clermont, Lord of Creil  1-- 1
HIIBHendrik II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier  2--2JCOJohn Comnenus  1-1-
JBLJan I, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg  2-11JIBJan of Bohemia  1-- 1
WIIRWizlaw II of Rügen  2-2-JIIBJean II, Duke of Brittany  1-- 1
A8CAlfonso VIII of Castile  1--1KPVKeratsa of Vidin  1-1-
ADAAndronikos Dukas Angelos  1-1-OGPOdon, Duke of Greater Poland  1-- 1
B3SBernhard III, Duke of Saxony  1--1PIVFPhilippe IV of France  11--
BIPBarnim I, Duke of Pomerania  1-1-RIIBRobert II, Duke of Burgundy  11--
BVHBaudouin V, Count of Hainaut  1-1-SIVCSancho IV of Castile  11--
CCVCharles, Count of Valois  11--TISTommaso I, Count of Savoy  1-- 1
D3LDedo III, Margrave of Lusatia  1-1-YIKYaroslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev  1-1-
Peter

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Reply with quote  #13 

A note on posterities

As is only to be expected with such a large group, some of the sovereigns here either were childless or their posterity failed, leaving them with no descendants today. As in 1330, it might be expected that descent of those with a surviving posterity would extend to all current sovereigns, whom I like to focus on in these notes. And, as in 1330, this expectation would be wrong.

In fact eight of the 19 sovereigns have no or at any rate no known descendants today. A further four are ancestors of only some of today’s sovereigns, while the remaining seven are ancestors of all. The sovereigns without a surviving posterity are Lajos I of Hungary, Giovanna I of Naples, Pierre II of Cyprus, Valdemar IV of Denmark, Haakon VI of Norway, Stephen Uroš V of Serbia, Albrecht of Sweden and Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria.

For all of these except Pierre II and Ivan Sratsimir, refer to the corresponding monarch in part II of the 1330 note for the nearest traceable collateral descent. Pierre II’s father Pierre I is also without descendants today, but his grandfather Hugues IV was shown in part I of that note to be a universal ancestor of present-day European sovereigns. For Ivan Sratsimir I could just trace descent from his great-great-great-grandfather Ivan Asen II (he had no nearer Bulgarian royal ancestors with known descent today) to Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of Morea. Part III of the 1453 note shows how descent can be traced from him to Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein, Henri of Luxembourg and Philippe of Belgium.

Or I could do a little better than that, and will try. First by going from Ivan Asen II to his remote descendant Anna Lascaris, then from her to her equally remote descendant Carlos IV of Spain, shown in the 1330 note part II as an ancestor of Felipe VI of Spain (which is hardly a surprise) as well as the other three Catholic monarchs already mentioned. And I can actually complete the set of Catholics, plus point to a future Protestant sovereign with the descent. Here is Anna Lascaris to Charlotte de la Trémoille, Countess of Derby; see post #6 of the 1517 thread for Albert II of Monaco’s descent from her. This traces Charlotte’s line to the 8th Earl Spencer, maternal grandfather of the Duke of Cambridge.

Having been lengthily detained over Ivan Sratsimir’s collateral descents, I need not take so long over the four monarchs of 1371 from whom only some of today’s sovereigns descend. These are Federico III of Sicily, Fernando I of Portugal, John V of Byzantium and Dmitry of Vladimir. For the latter two, their case is no different from those of their predecessors discussed in the 1330 note part II. I will mention that Fernando I’s present-day crowned descendants are the same three originally given for Ivan Sratsimir, and that this is not coincidental. For a reason that will become apparent I will show the detail of these descents in an addendum to the 1415 thread, which should be appearing in a few weeks’ time.

However, Federico III I will deal with here. He is actually an ancestor of only one current monarch, Philippe of Belgium (and that through his mother, so it was only last year that, after a gap of centuries, the 14th-century monarch gained a sovereign descendant). Federico’s legitimate posterity did not extend beyond a grandchild who died young, his descent then depending on his illegitimate issue. This traces from him to Donna Giovanna Tagliavia Aragona Cortes, and this shows a line from her to King Philippe.

Finally, the monarchs whose descent is ubiquitous. These are Edward III of England, Pero IV of Aragón, Charles II of Navarre, Charles V of France, Enrique II of Castile, the Emperor Karl IV and Robert II of Scotland. Edward III was very amply covered in the 1330 note part I. In that note, the link for Alfonso IV of Aragón in the table at the end goes through Pero IV; that for Jeanne II of Navarre through Charles II; and that for Władysław I of Poland not through Karl IV but through his wife Elisabeth of Pomerania, and he is shown in the link. That leaves Charles V, Enrique II and Robert II.

Charles V’s grandson Charles VII was shown in the 1453 note part I to be a universal ancestor. Or I could say, equally cursorily, that his great-great-grandson Henry VII of England has been amply demonstrated to enjoy universal ancestor status. What I will do is take another route entirely, and show the descent of Charles, Count of Angoulême from his great-grandfather Charles V; see the 1517 note for proof of Charles of Angoulême being a universal ancestor.

For Enrique II, here is a line from him to the Emperor Ferdinand I, for whom the same thing was shown in the 1453 note part I. And finally for Robert II, his seven-times descendant and remote successor James I of England and VI of Scotland is an acknowledged ancestor of all contemporary sovereigns bar the Prince of Monaco, whose descents from James IV of Scotland and therefore Robert II are discussed in the 1517 post mentioned previously.

Although it hardly seems necessary I will trace the descent of the Scottish crown from Robert II to James I and VI here. James IV can be seen in the link, in the unlikely event that anyone requires proof of his descent from his predecessor and male-line ancestor. That concludes this note and, apart from the following relationships table and any discussion there might be, the thread. 

Peter

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Ivan Sratsimir (c.1325-1397), last of the medieval Tsars of Bulgaria and Robert II (1316-1390), first of the Stewart Kings of Scots
Heinrich I of GermanyHeinrich I of GermanyRelationship
Otto I, Holy Roman EmperorHedwig of Saxony m Hugues, Duke of FranceSiblings
Otto II, Holy Roman EmperorHugues I of France1st cousins
Mathilde of Saxony m Ezzo, Count Palatine of LorraineRobert II of France2nd cousins
Richeza of Lorraine m Miezko II Lambert of PolandHenri I of France3rd cousins
Richeza of Poland m Béla I of HungaryHugues I, Count of Vermandois4th cousins
László I of HungaryElizabeth of Vermandois m William de Warrene, Earl of Surrey5th cousins
Eirene of Hungary m John II, Eastern Roman EmperorAda de Warrene m Henry, Earl of Huntingdon6th cousins
Isaac Comnenus, SebastocratorDavid, Earl of Huntingdon7th cousins
Anna Comnena m Constantine DoukasIsabella of Huntingdon m Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale8th cousins
Zoe Doukaina m John Doukas AngelosRobert Bruce, Lord of Annandale9th cousins
Theodorus I Comnenus, Despot of ThessalonicaRobert Bruce, Earl of Carrick10th cousins
Eirene Comnena Angelina m Ivan Asen II of BulgariaRobert I of Scotland11th cousins
Anna of Bulgaria m Peter, Regent of BulgariaMarjorie Bruce m Walter Stewart. 6th High Steward of Scotland12th cousins
Daughter m Shishman, Despot of VidinRobert II of Scotland13th cousins
Keratsa of Vidin m Srazimir, Lord of KranRobert II of Scotland13c1r
Ivan Alexander of BulgariaRobert II of Scotland13c2r
Ivan Sratsimir of BulgariaRobert II of Scotland13c3r
The blue links at the top of each column trace the descendancy to the next blue-linked person, and the link from him traces it to the monarch concerned. Other links are to Wikipedia articles.
Windemere

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Reply with quote  #15 
Thanks for posting these interesting charts, which will take months to actually analyze.

Count Hugues I of Vermandois, shown in the chart as the great-great-great grandson of German King Heinrich the Fowler (and younger son of French King Henri I) must have obtained his comital title in right of his wife, Adelaide. Adelaide was the daughter of Count Herbert IV of Vermandois (an agnatic Carolingian). Adelaide's brother (Herbert's son) was Eudes (Odo) l' Insense (the Insane). Eudes appears to have been the very last male Carolingian. There's little information to be found on him online, and although he did possibly marry, there's no additional information. He was apparently bypassed in the Vermandois succession due to being feeble-minded.

Hugues' & Adelaide's daughter Elizabeth, as shown on the chart, married William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Previously she'd married Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester. She carried the combined Capetian and Carolingian bloodline to England and Scotland.

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