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Peter

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Introduction part I – the sovereigns

                                              Quhen Alysandyr oure kyng was dede
                                              That Scotland led in luve and le
                                              Away was sons off ale and brede
                                              Off wyne and wax, off gamyn and gle

                                              Oure gold was changed into lede
                                              Cryst, born into vyrgynyte
                                              Succoure Scotland and remede
                                              That stad in its perplexyte

Thus one of the earliest known poem in Scots, lamenting the death of Alexander III, a great King who had made his kingdom strong and prosperous and united Scotland with the Hebrides, until then part of Norway. The contemporary Lanercost Chronicle takes a somewhat different view of the deceased Scottish monarch:

He used never to forbear on account of season nor storm, nor for perils of flood or rocky cliffs, but would visit not too creditably nuns or matrons, virgins or widows, by day or by night as the fancy seized him, sometimes in disguise, often accompanied by a single follower.

But that chronicle was written by monks of a Northern English priory, and from a highly anti-Scottish perspective. Perhaps, though, Alexander really was reliving old habits when, against the advice of his counsellors, on the evening of 18th March 1286 he left the comfort of Edinburgh Castle to ride through the night to Kinghorn, in Fife, so that he could spend the next day, her birthday, with his new bride Yolande de Dreux, a member of a Capetian cadet line.

He never arrived, but was found the next morning dead on a beach near Kinghorn, his neck broken. He had become separated from his escort in the dark, and his horse had stumbled by the steep incline at the foot of which his body was found, with fatal consequences for the King and, eventually, many more besides.

Yolande was his second wife. He had had three children by his first wife Margaret, a daughter of Henry III of England, but all were now dead with but one grandchild left, the infant Margaret, daughter of the King of Norway by Alexander’s daughter of the same name. She was legal heiress presumptive, but clearly a young child far away in Norway was not adequate insurance for the succession, so after a long widowhood and following his elder son’s death Alexander had made haste to marry again.

Just 44, there seemed plenty of time to produce a clutch of heirs, but time ran out. Yolande was pregnant, but whether through miscarriage or stillbirth no heir eventuated, then young Margaret of Norway died on the journey to her kingdom. Scotland was left in confusion, and with a confusion of heirs through remote lineages, all vigorously asserting their claim. Edward I of England was called in to arbitrate, but his choice, John Balliol, came to be seen as too much his creature.

The whole saga of the Scottish Wars of Independence ensued, ending in the triumph of Robert the Bruce and creating the Scottish national mythology, profoundly embodied in the Scottish psyche even today, and colouring the relationship between the Scottish and English nations despite their 400 years and more of union under the same Crown.

If Alexander III had been less uxorious, had listened to his counsellors* and never gone on that fatal night ride, most likely none of this would ever have happened. He would have been succeeded by a son from Yolande de Dreux (who apart from her lost child by Alexander had six by her second husband Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, so evidently was fertile), Scotland’s history would have taken a different course, and Scotland today would be a different nation.

***

Alexander III was scarcely old when he died, but was nevertheless the doyen among the monarchs then reigning, having come to his throne and been acclaimed with the traditional ceremonies at Scone aged just seven. The next most senior monarch was Erik V of Denmark, thirty-six or thirty-seven years old at this date and having reigned from the age of ten. Alexander III’s father Alexander II had died of fever while on an expedition to the Hebrides; the death of Erik V’s father Christopher I was more mysterious, taken suddenly ill after attending Mass and shortly thereafter dying, many thought from poison in the wine.

This was plausible, as much of Christopher I’s reign had been spent in conflict with the Archbishop of Lund, head of the Danish Church, the latter wishing to establish the Church as a sovereign power in Denmark, paying no taxes and not subject to the King’s law, and the former naturally resisting, to the extent that the Archbishop at the time of the King’s death was a chained prisoner in a royal fortress.

Nothing was ever proved, but if it was murder then Christopher would have been the third in a row of three Kings of Denmark, all brothers, to die violently. His eldest brother Erik IV had been staying at the court of the middle brother Abel, Duke of Schleswig, when his headless corpse was found floating in the sea nearby. The ambitious Abel was naturally suspected, but was nevertheless allowed to succeed upon taking an oath as to his innocence. A year later Abel was himself dead, killed in the course of a punitive raid against rebellious peasants. So little had his oath been believed that, as was traditional with murderers, his corpse was staked to prevent it becoming a revenant. Abel af navn, Kain af gavn was the saying: ‘Abel by name, Cain by deed.’

Abel’s sons were able to retain Schleswig, where for several generations they were to be a thorn in the Danish monarchy’s side, but his youngest brother Christopher succeeded in Denmark and following him his son Erik V, despite the best efforts of the vengeful Archbishop on the one hand and his cousins in Schleswig on the other to prevent it. His mother’s regency was as turbulent as his father’s reign had been, and Erik’s adult reign not much better. He was little loved, being seen as grasping and treacherous, and later in that same year of 1286 met his end, stabbed as he slept by assailants who have never been conclusively identified.

Denmark had fallen a long way since the glory days of Valdemar II, father of the brothers Erik IV, Abel and Christopher I and grandfather of Erik V, and was to fall further yet under the latter’s sons Erik VI and Christopher II before Christopher II’s son Valdemar IV brought renewal to the kingdom. After the extinction of Christopher II’s legitimate descent the throne was to pass to a new dynasty, the House of Oldenburg, beginning with Christian I. As shown in the note on posterities the most recent Danish king Christian descended from was Erik V himself, the last monarch of his line from whom there is certainly known descent. Which also accounts for Christopher I, but in fact while remote Christian I’s descents from earlier Kings were abundant, and he descended also from the murdered Erik IV and the possibly murderous Abel.

***

Daniel of Moscow was only two years old at the death of his father, the storied and sainted Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Vladimir, the premier Russian principality of the day. He did not succeed his father in Vladimir or any other of the major realms of Russia; as the youngest son his meagre portion, as it seemed then, was the new principality of Moscow, while his elder brother Dmitry eventually ascended Vladimir’s throne.

Daniel rather than Dmitry however appears in the charts, as the latter had no recorded issue while Daniel, as well as laying the foundations for the Moscow state’s rise to pre-eminence, was forefather of all its Grand Princes and, later, of the first Tsars. Wise and prudent, pacific by nature and reputed generous and kind, devout as he showed by the foundation of Moscow’s first monasteries, he would follow his father into sainthood, while the Princes of his line erected his legacy, an enlarged, orderly and prosperous principality, into eventual sovereignty over all Russia.

***

In contrast to these children, Leo II was around thirty-three years old when his father Hethum I abdicated and entered a Franciscan monastery, leaving his eldest and only surviving son to rule the embattled kingdom of Armenia-in-Exile. In the last two decades of the 11th century Armenian refugees from the original highland realm had settled in numbers along the coastlands of Cilicia, the homeland having fallen under Seljuk sway. Ruben I, claimed to be a member of the Bagratid royal house, erected the newly-settled Armenian lands into a princedom under himself, which his great-great-grandson Leo II raised to be a kingdom, reigning with great splendour as Leo I.

Cilician Armenia’s Golden Age under its first King foundered following his death, as his two marriages had produced but two daughters between them and to compound matters he named the younger as heiress, having previously favoured a great-nephew, Raymond-Ruben of Antioch. The ensuing struggles between Raymond-Ruben, Jean of Brienne, husband of the elder daughter Rita, and the Regent for the younger daughter and nominated heiress Zabel, ended with the capture and death of Raymond-Ruben, the natural death of Rita followed shortly by her only child, thus ending Jean of Brienne’s claim, and the seizure of the Regency, and the person of Zabel, by Constantine, Lord of Barbaron and head of the House of Hethum, greatest of the noble houses of the exile kingdom.

Zabel’s first husband Philippe of Antioch, to whom she had been married when just six years old, was imprisoned and shortly died. Which was suspiciously convenient for Constantine, who then compelled the unwilling Zabel to marry his own son and heir Hethum, who now became joint sovereign with his unhappy bride as Hethum I. He pursued a policy of alliance with the Mongols, who at that time were seeking to establish their power in the region. For a time this was successful and brought the kingdom considerable benefits, but the new power of the Mamluks arising in Egypt proved the land’s undoing.

While Hethum I was away at the court of the Ilkhan in Persia the Mamluks invaded, killing Hethum’s younger son Thoros and capturing the elder, Leo, who had to be ransomed at great cost in both lands and treasure. The kingdom truly was never the same, and Leo II and his successors reigned over an ever-dwindling and ever-weakening realm until less than a century later the Mamluks finally brought it to an end, the Kings of Cyprus as heirs of the Hethumids claiming the title of King of Armenia but ruling at most one or two coastal fortresses, and soon enough not even that.

***

As I observed in the original version of this introduction, the inclusion of an Asian monarch in this thread does not exactly contribute to either statistical rigour or overall consistency. On the other hand, one monarch among so many is hardly going to make a great difference to the statistical picture, and I just felt that Leo II would be an interesting inclusion. The next monarch to accede was in fact half-Asian himself, his mother having been a pagan princess of the Cumans, a Turkic people forced into Eastern Europe by the pressure of the Mongols from behind, but there can be no quibbles about the inclusion of László IV of Hungary.

We are back to the children, as László was only ten when his father István V died. The unworthy last namesake among Hungary’s Kings of István I, saintly founder of the kingdom, István V’s constant rebellions had troubled and undermined his own father Béla IV’s rule, then he had spent his own two-year reign in constant warfare, external and internecine. In pursuit of one of the latter conflicts the heir László had been taken prisoner by a rebellious nobleman, and was still in captivity when a fever claimed his father and he became King.

Eventually freed and, at fifteen, declared of age, he had not exactly had the best of starts to either his life or his reign, and nothing got better. He did prove quite a capable and successful war leader, but his evident favouring of his Cuman kinsmen alienated him from his Magyar subjects, while the Church excommunicated him for not compelling the large number of Cumans who remained pagan to submit to Christianity.

Pope Nicholas IV was on the verge of declaring a Crusade against what it was strongly suspected was no longer a Christian monarch when three of the Cuman associates he so favoured murdered László and brought an end to what had long been a shadowy rule, he having abandoned court and palace and, without ever formally abdicating, responsibility for the realm to live the life of a nomad. So the last perhaps† of the Árpáds to reign in Hungary reverted to the manner of life of the first, over three centuries before.

***

Edward I of England was twenty-three and on his way home from Crusade when the news reached him that his father Henry III had died and he was now King. Henry III had been noted more for piety than ability, and much of his reign had been troubled by baronial strife similar to that which had afflicted his father King John, he for a time losing the rule altogether.

However, and in no small part due to the efforts of Henry’s son and heir, the realm had been pacified and royal rule re-established to the point that Edward saw no reason to change the leisurely progress home he had planned. When he landed on these shores for the first time as King, he had already been so for well over a year.

A conscientious administrator, Edward instituted a thorough examination of the government and legal institutions of the realm, subsequently initiating a series of far-reaching legislative reforms. However, it is not for these that he is remembered, but as a man of war who completed the conquest of Wales and spent his last decade on the attempted subjugation of Scotland. The Kings of England had long exercised feudal overlordship over the parts of Wales not ruled directly, and Edward’s assault there was not unprovoked, Llewellyn the Last whom the English king had himself raised to be Prince of Wales being in violation of his feudal duty, but nevertheless after seven centuries and more the name of Edward I of England is still hated amongst the Welsh.

There was precedent also for the King of Scots to do homage for his realm to the King of England. The late Alexander III had refused homage to Henry III while still only a boy, and to his face at that not in an exchange of letters, but some of his predecessors including his grandfather William the Lion had acknowledged English suzerainty. And had Edward left it at the paying of formal homage the Scots would have been willing to accept it, but his intention was to rule the neighbour realm. This its people could never accept, and Edward I’s ambitions began a cycle of warfare that spanned over three decades.

Scotland triumphed, its independence preserved and all claim to suzerainty put aside, but understandably Edward I is remembered there too as the villain of the piece. In England he is seen as a strong King who doubtless would have been victorious had he lived on instead of dying and leaving the conflict to be conducted by his feeble and inept son Edward II. Perhaps he would, but nevertheless it was an unjust war of conquest that he began, certainly in Scotland though as said there is more defence for his Welsh campaign.

And although he was an important legal reformer and transformed the character of Parliament into something beginning to resemble the modern institution, he was not so good at staying within the bounds of his lawful authority in England, several times provoking his barons to near-rebellion through this and through the continual taxation required to fund his continual wars. The expulsion of the Jews, applauded though it may have been at the time, is another blot on his record, and while not in the least Scottish or Welsh but very much English I cannot say that the first Edward‡ is among my favourites on the long roll of English monarchs.

***

Whether good, bad or somewhere in between, Edward I was certainly an important monarch. And so too was Rudolf I of Germany. Already fifty-five years old when elected German king, he lived on to what was for that era the good age of seventy-three, and in the seventeen years thus spanned managed to lay the foundations for what became the pre-eminence of his House of Habsburg in the Empire’s affairs. Never Emperor himself, he was the forefather of no fewer than twelve Emperors descended in direct line from him, then three more of the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

During his long tenure as Count of Habsburg Rudolf had done nothing but acquire lands and build up the family’s wealth and power, and he saw no reason to change from that as Germany’s monarch. In one of history’s most successful heists, he declared the great territory of Austria, where the ruling House of Babenberg had recently gone extinct in male line, to have reverted to himself as feudal overlord, brazenly awarding the fief to his own son and heir Albrecht. This was clean contrary to the law in Austria, which allowed succession by cognatic heirs of whom there were several, but though it took warfare against Přemysl Otakar II of Bohemia, who had claimed and held the inheritance, with that King’s defeat and death in battle Habsburg rule over Austria was assured. For the next 636 years.

The other thing Rudolf I did to assure his dynasty’s success was to have daughters, six of them. All lived to marriageable age and were duly married off to assorted key princes, forming a web of alliances used to consolidate the Habsburg power and, as often seems to happen, making a monarch whose own connections were tenuous and remote a key connector of later generations – Christian I of Denmark, Gustav I of Sweden and even Christian IX of Denmark come to mind as comparable figures, and there have been others like that over the course of the centuries. Few, though, of as much import as Rudolf I, the first Habsburg ever to reign in Germany, but one who made very sure that he would not be the last.

***

Continuing in accession order, as I have done up till now and will maintain until the end is reached, the next monarch to consider is an unusual case. As far as we know, Jeanne I of Navarre never once set foot in her kingdom. She may have done as a child, we don’t have a continuous record of her earlier life, but as she was raised at the court of France as the betrothed of the future Philippe IV, then heir apparent to the French throne, it doesn’t seem likely. As an adult she certainly did not, though she regularly visited and directly ruled her other inheritance of Champagne.

She had been regnant Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne, in which county she was born, since she was one year old. In 1284 she married Philippe, being then aged eleven, and aged twelve became Queen Consort of France in addition to her own regnal title. Four years older, Philippe had to wait for consummation until his bride reached a suitable age, their first child being born in 1288. They were considered a close and affectionate couple, their marriage productive of three sons that lived to adulthood and were all Kings of France (and absentee monarchs of Navarre) and of one daughter that did, Isabella, wife and nemesis of Edward II of England and mother of Edward III.

***

Scotland has its Stone of Scone, though the last Scottish King to be acclaimed on it with traditional ceremony was John Balliol in 1292 (and the authenticity of the stone now kept at Scone Abbey has often been questioned). For Sweden, it was the Stones of Mora, though they are more definitively lost, destroyed it is thought in a Danish invasion in the early 16th century. In 1275 however they were still very much there, and Magnus III was elected King with all due ceremony at the site near Uppsala. His election was due to his having defeated and overthrown his brother Valdemar I, first King of the Folkung or Bjälbo dynasty, as Magnus was the second.

Early Swedish monarchical history is complex to say the least, and just a few generations before this date it becomes ever harder to discern just what is mythology and what history. It is history that two rival dynasties, called respectively the House of Erik and House of Sverker, had in recent times alternated on Sweden’s throne, though it was no peaceful game of musical chairs but rather a continuous and bloody struggle between the two lines. Sverker was a historical personage, Erik may or may not have been. At any rate both lines had expired, the Sverker dynasty with Johan I and that of Erik with Erik XI, Valdemar’s predecessor as Johan was his.

The de facto ruler of Sweden during much of Erik XI’s reign was Birger Jarl, himself a great-grandson through his mother of Sverker I and married to Erik’s sister Ingeborg. Their son Valdemar was therefore well-placed to be chosen King on Erik’s death, and to Valdemar’s loss their other son Magnus as well qualified to replace him. First to call himself ‘King of the Swedes and the Goths’, the latter title being assumed upon recovery of Götaland from Valdemar, who had conquered the region in the course of attempting to recover his throne, Magnus was also the first Swedish king since Anund Jakob succeeded Olof Skötkonung in around 1022 to be followed directly by his son.

Who was that Birger overthrown on behalf of his infant nephew Magnus IV that I treat of in the 1330 thread, so the course of Sweden’s succession was not yet running smooth, and in fact could not really be said to do so until after Karl IX came to the throne in 1604 (having seized it from his own nephew Sigismund). As some minor compensation for Valdemar I, displaced so long before, he was an ancestor of Christian I of Denmark and Norway (and briefly Sweden) and so of most of the Kings of Sweden from Karl IX’s son Gustav II Adolf on.

***

The above-mentioned death in battle of Přemysl Otakar II made his only son King of Bohemia as Václav II at the tender age of six. This was in 1278, so at the thread date he had reached fourteen and still had several years of minority ahead of him. These he terminated decisively four years later by having his Regent beheaded. He ruled as decisively for the remainder of his reign, cut short by his death from disease (believed though not certainly known to have been consumption), then aged thirty-three and his adult reign having lasted only fifteen years.

He packed a lot into that decade-and-a-half, bolstered by the discovery of large deposits of silver in the central region of Bohemia. Václav declared silver mining to be a royal monopoly, and his power enlarged as the treasury swelled. In 1300 he became King of Poland as well as Bohemia, and in 1301 had his eleven-year-old son the future Václav III of Bohemia crowned King of Hungary, as László V. The younger Václav was a grandson of Rudolf I of Germany above, his father having been one of those key princes chosen for a Habsburg bride. This was Judith, Rudolf I’s youngest daughter, who was affianced to Václav II when they were five, the marriage taking place nine years later.

They were to have ten children before Judith died aged just twenty-six, her body worn out by her unceasing pregnancies. Of these four lived past infancy, two of them having children themselves. The two did not include Václav III, murdered aged sixteen by an unidentified assailant, which deed brought the legitimate Přemyslid male line to an end. Then the eldest daughter Anna lived to be twenty-two and was married and briefly Queen of Bohemia, but died childless. Not so the next daughter Elisabeth, wife of the famous John the Blind; their abundant posterity is discussed in the 1330 thread, and included all future Kings of Bohemia. And also not so the youngest daughter to survive, Margarete. She like her sister Elisabeth is a universal ancestress of royalty today, which I will demonstrate by tracing her to, not Christian I of Denmark for a change, but his wife.

***

Diniz of Portugal had an unusual name for a King, which was not his destiny when born but became so the next year, when his two-year-old elder brother Fernando died. The equivalent of the English Dennis or French Denis and derived from the Greek Dionysius, I cannot think of a single other sovereign who bore it. I can think of several parallel cases to his life, though; an exemplary monarch who ruled humanely, wisely and well, yet whose reign was troubled and legacy marred by dissension among his sons.

There were no sons as yet when Diniz came to the throne at a young age, though being seventeen years old he was not among the many monarchs of the period whose crown descended on a head too small to bear it. He was nine years into his reign when he married the pious, charitable and courageous Elizabeth of Aragón, who reputedly twice prevented a battle by physically interposing herself between the contending armies and was later canonised.

They had but two children together, the future Afonso IV of Portugal and Constança, Queen of Castile as wife of Fernando IV. However Diniz had several children apart from those with his saintly wife, and it was one of these, another Afonso, who quarrelled violently and continually with his legitimate brother, the dissension at times turning into open warfare and even leading the legitimate Afonso to go to war with his own father, whom he believed favoured his elder but bastard son.

All this must have been a great grief to Diniz, who governed his realm so well but could not govern his family. As King, he was a lawgiver, the establisher of Portugal’s first legal code, also making Portuguese for the first time the language of law and government; a promoter of commerce and agriculture, greatly enhancing the realm’s prosperity; a builder, founder of several towns and numerous castles; and a patron of education, founding also the University of Coimbra, Portugal’s first institution of higher learning. Notably pacific, he fought only one external war in the four decades of his reign, and that brief. In short he was in all ways an admirable monarch, and to add to his qualities was a man of culture and learning, the author of several books and numerous poems and songs, many of which survive.

If only he had confined himself to the marriage bed, his glory would be entirely undimmed. But that is a lament that could be made a number of times through history, and in fairness no one particularly expected medieval monarchs to be faithful to their wives. Both the children he did have with Elisabeth of Aragón are universal ancestors of today’s royalty.  The bastard Afonso is not, but all descendants of João IV of Portugal (a subject discussed at extreme length in the 1848 thread) are descendants of his, and that includes the Prince of Liechtenstein, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and King of Belgium. An earlier descendant was Marie de’ Medici, wife of Henri IV of France and mother of his legitimate children, and that makes the King of Spain and the Duke of Cambridge also descendants of the long-ago Afonso, natural son of the great Diniz, King of Portugal.

***

Eirik II was that King of Norway mentioned at the beginning of this introduction as father of the tragic Margaret, Maid of Norway, who inherited Scotland from her mother’s father Alexander III but never lived to reach its shores. It is nothing unusual for the period that following his own father’s death Eirik acceded at the early age of eleven or twelve, or even that he married not much more than a year later, to the twenty-year-old Margaret of Scotland.

The disparity in ages between bride and bridegroom would have been nothing odd the other way round, though an adult bride and child bridegroom was, while hardly unprecedented, not something often seen. The really remarkable thing in the sadly brief marriage was that the younger Margaret was born less than two years after it took place, Eirik having fathered her while still only thirteen or fourteen.

The evidently precocious Eirik was a widower as soon as he was a father, his wife and Queen dying on the same day that their child was born. He married again ten years later, to a second Scottish royal bride, Isabella, sister of Robert the Bruce. Four years after that a second daughter was born, Ingeborg, the union’s only fruit. When after an adult reign preoccupied with unsuccessful warfare with Denmark and the Hanseatic League on the one hand and dissension with the Church on the other§ Eirik died aged not much more than thirty his successor was not Ingeborg, who would only have been considered in the complete absence of male alternatives, but rather his younger brother Haakon V.

***

I got as far as Diniz before my grave illness earlier this year caused a months-long and currently continuing hiatus in my work on the section. Upon release from hospital I remembered having made a quite good, I felt, beginning on the piece but could not find it anywhere. Then when I did track it down my fitful attempts to continue writing brought only the rather laboured few paragraphs on Eirik II above. That is nine out of seventeen monarchs covered so more than half done in one way, but many of those who remain were rulers of great significance, deserving of far more than the cursory treatment which is all I seem to be up to at present.

Concluding that it could well be yet more months before everything was finished to a satisfactory standard, I decided to post what had been done already rather than leaving it to moulder in one of my computer’s dustier recesses. Hopefully some few at least will find it interesting, and as hopefully I will be able to finish it off sometime before 2015 becomes 2016.

For now, though, I will just mention, as I did in the originally-posted temporary (ha!) version of this introduction, covering only Alexander III in any depth, that there is another reigning sovereign of the day omitted from the charts besides Dmitry of Vladimir. George Terter of Bulgaria had to be left out because we have no clue even of who his parents were, not the best start on establishing relationships. That said, I will continue not with George Terter’s Balkan neighbour Stephen Uroš II of Serbia but rather with the introduction’s second part, introducing the charts and summarising the relationships.


* According to the Lanercost Chronicle, he received similar advice along the way, first from the master of the crossing at Queensferry, then the steward of the salt pans at Inverkeithing, whom the chronicle records as saying ‘My lord, what are you doing here in such a storm and such darkness? Often have I tried to persuade you that your nocturnal rambles will bring you no good. Stay with us, and we will provide you with decent fare and all that you want till morning light.’ The King, the chronicle claims, took no offence at this boldness but also no notice of the advice, saying with a laugh ‘No need for that’, and riding on to his doom.

† László IV’s successor was his male-line first cousin once removed András III, formally the very last Árpád King, but the paternity of András III’s father István was widely questioned.

‡ Why he was the first when there had been three Edwards (Edward the Elder, Edward the Martyr and Edward the Confessor, for whom he was named) before him is something of a mystery. The perpetuation of the name in his successor was though a matter of chance, not egoism; the future Edward II was not even the heir when born, that being his ten-year-old brother Alfonso who died five months later, and before Alfonso there had been the even shorter-lived John and then Henry.

§ Provoked by the ambitious Jon Raude, Archbishop of Nidaros, similarly to the way in which the Danish primate of the day troubled the reign of this introduction’s second subject Erik V of Denmark.

Peter

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Introduction part II – the relationships

As always with these earlier charts, the number of monarchs makes the original chart containing the complete set of relationships too large to be posted (and if it could be posted it would be too large to be navigated with any ease), so some basis had to be found for splitting it. As has become customary I have done so by forming the monarchs into two groups, called not entirely accurately ‘Western’ and ‘Eastern’, the first all near akin to each other and the second more distantly related both to members of their own group and the members of the first.

As the table below shows, the first group members are on the whole strikingly near akin, and with one or two exceptions the members of the second group fairly or very remote. From each other, as several of the Eastern group sovereigns were considerably more closely related to Western group members than they were to any of their own group. Not, however, closely enough to satisfy the Western group criteria, and though it took some pondering I eventually decided to stick with the groupings summarised below: 

R'shipTIIIIII%TIIIIII
B1100B0.510000
U/N1100U/N0.510000
1c119201c682180
2c33172142c1852642
3c23103103c12431343
4c73713534c39101873
5c1901095c1005347
6c130766c705446
7c130587c703862
 1874542100 100242253

In the table, T is the original 20-monarch chart, I is Western group amongst themselves, II is Eastern group amongst themselves, and III the two groups with each other. The figures on the left are actual numbers, and on the right the percentages these form; for example, 6% of the total relationships are as first cousins, and 82% of these appear in chart I.

As in 1371, and for the same reason, it is actually four charts that follow. The large number of multiple relationships in chart III made it so deep that it would have been unwieldy to navigate on-screen, so I split it further into charts IIIa and IIIb. These are treated as just one chart in the statistics, and only the heading III appears in the table above and the combined statistics that come after the charts and their keys. As before, no statistical summary appears in the key to IIIa, one for the two charts together following IIIb. The figures in brackets after names in the keys do however refer to the individual chart.

The combined statistics appear as usual in two parts, and the thread concludes with a note on posterities. This is the first set of charts I have produced reaching back as far as the 13th century; though dated only 44 years before the previous earliest set there are some, I feel, interesting contrasts, and there does seem to be some kind of evolution towards a more fixed pattern of relationships taking place in the seven pre-Reformation threads, before that event shattered the mould and began recasting relationships in a new pattern. Be that as it may, I feel there is much of interest just in the charts by themselves, and I hope others will enjoy them. If needed, there is a guide to how to read them here.

Peter

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Relationships of the European sovereigns* on the evening of 18 March 1286, the date of Alexander III of Scotland's fatal night ride (part I)
Reigning MonarchEdward IJeanne IDinizS Uroš IISancho IVCharles IIHenri IIPhilippe IVAlfonso IIIJaume
Edward I of England2c2r EDA
2c2r HIIE
2c1r HIIE3c1r PLC2c2r HIIE1c RBVP2c3r EDA1c1r RBVP2c1r TIS2c1r TIS
Jeanne I of Navarre2c2r EDA
2c2r HIIE
2c1r A8C2c2r I2A2c1r PGI1c1r L8F3c1r HIC2c L8F4c A7C
4c BVH
4c FIB
4c A7C
4c BVH
4c FIB
Diniz of Portugal2c1r HIIE2c1r A8C2c2r I2AN AXC2c A8C3c2r EDA2c1r A8C3c1r RBIVB3c1r RBIVB
Stephen Uroš II of Serbia3c1r PLC2c2r I2A2c2r I2A2c1r I2A3c1r BVH4c CPA3c B3H
3c PCE
3c B3H
3c PCE
3c B3H
3c PCE
Sancho IV of Castile2c2r HIIE2c1r PGIU AXC2c1r I2A2c1r A8C4c CPA1c CIA1c CIA1c CIA
Charles II of Naples1c RBVP1c1r L8F2c A8C3c1r BVH2c1r A8C3c2r EDA
3c2r L7F
1c1r L8F
1c1r RBVP
2c1r TIS2c1r TIS
Henri II of Cyprus & Jerusalem2c3r EDA3c1r HIC3c2r EDA4c CPA4c CPA3c2r EDA
3c2r L7F
4c CPA4c CPA4c CPA
Philippe IV of France1c1r RBVP2c L8F2c1r A8C3c B3H
3c PCE
1c CIA1c1r L8F
1c1r RBVP
4c CPA1c CIA1c CIA
Alfonso III of Aragón2c1r TIS4c A7C
4c BVH
4c FIB
3c1r RBIVB3c B3H
3c PCE
1c CIA2c1r TIS4c CPA1c CIAB P3A
Jaume of Sicily2c1r TIS4c A7C
4c BVH
4c FIB
3c1r RBIVB3c B3H
3c PCE
1c CIA2c1r TIS4c CPA1c CIAB P3A
*Excluding George Terter I of Bulgaria, but with the addition of Leo II of Armenia
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Reply with quote  #4 
Key:  
A7CA8CAXC
Alfonso VII of Castile (2)Alfonso VIII of Castile (4)Alfonso X of Castile (1)
B3HBVHCIA
Béla III of Hungary (3)Baudouin V, Count of Hainaut (3)Chaime I of Aragón (5)
CPAEDAFIB
Constance, Princess of Antioch (5)Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine (4)Friedrich I, Holy Roman Emperor (2)
HICHIIEI2A
Henri I, Count of Champagne (1)Henry II of England (3)Isaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor (3)
L7FL8FP3A
Louis VII of France (1)Louis VIII of France (3)Pero III of Aragón (1)
PCEPGIPLC
Pierre of Courtenay, Latin Emperor (3)Philipp of Germany (1)Pierre I, Lord of Courtenay (1)
RBIVBRBVPTIS
Ramon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona (2)Ramon Berenguer V, C of Provence (3)Tommaso I, Count of Savoy (4)
Most connections formed:CIA, CPA (5)A8C, EDA, TIS (4)B3H, BVH, HIIE, I2A, L8F, PCE, RBVP (3)A7C, FIB, RBIVB (2)Others (1)
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Reply with quote  #5 
Relationships of the European sovereigns* on the evening of 18 March 1286, the date of Alexander III of Scotland's fatal night ride (part II)
Reigning MonarchAlexander IIIErik VDanielLeo IILászló IVRudolf IMagnus IIIVáclav IIEirik IIAndronicus II
Alexander III of Scotland5c UIIS6c YIK7c GCR5c2r PIF6c1r B2S5c1r GPS5c2r PIF5c1r UIIS7c1r OIS
Erik V of Denmark5c UIIS4c MIGK6c ALM4c1r MIGK5c2r CIL2c VID4c1r B3P
4c1r MIGK
1c1r VIID7c1r BIH
7c1r MIIP
7c1r OIS
Daniel of Moscow6c YIK4c MIGK4c1r MIGK4c MIGK3c2r RIK4c1r MIGK
Leo II of Armenia7c GCR6c ALM5c1r B2J5c3r RDS7c2r MIIP4c3r HIR5c1r ACS4c1r ACS
László IV of Hungary5c2r PIF4c1r MIGK4c1r MIGK5c1r B2J6c3r B2S
6c3r H3G
4c1r MIGK1c1r BIVH4c1r ADA
4c1r GIIH
3c A3A
Rudolf I of Germany6c1r B2S5c2r CIL5c3r RDS6c3r B2S
6c3r H3G
6c B2S6c1r H3G6c2r B2S
6c2r H3G
5c2r RDS
Magnus III of Sweden5c1r GPS2c VID4c MIGK7c2r MIIP4c1r MIGK6c B2S4c1r B3P
4c1r MIGK
2c1r VID7c1r MIIP
Václav II of Bohemia5c2r PIF4c1r B3P
4c1r MIGK
3c2r RIK4c3r HIR1c1r BIVH6c1r H3G4c1r B3P
4c1r MIGK
4c1r ADA
4c1r GIIH
3c1r A3A
Eirik II of Norway5c1r UIIS1c1r VIID4c1r MIGK5c1r ACS4c1r ADA
4c1r GIIH
6c2r B2S
6c2r H3G
2c1r VID4c1r ADA
4c1r GIIH
4c1r ADA
Andronicus II, Eastern Roman Emperor7c1r OIS7c1r BIH
7c1r MIIP
7c1r OIS
4c1r ACS3c A3A5c2r RDS7c1r MIIP3c1r A3A4c1r ADA
*Excluding George Terter I of Bulgaria, but with the addition of Leo II of Armenia
Note: the relationship through Mieszko II of Poland shown in the link for Alexander III and Andronicus II has been disregarded, as the identification of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile, as a daughter of Mieszko II is, while plausible, an as yet unproven theory. The relationships through Adelaide of Susa shown between Rudolf I and Alexander III and Eirik II have also been disregarded, as all the evidence is that her marriage to Hermann IV, Duke of Swabia was childless.
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Reply with quote  #6 
Key:  
A3AACSADA
Alexius III Angelus, Eastern Emperor (2)Andronicus Comnenus (2)Andronikos Dukas Angelos (3)
ALMB2JB2S
Almodis de la Marche (1)Baudouin II of Jerusalem (1)Bernhard II, Duke of Saxony (4)
B3PBIHBIVH
Bolesław III, Duke of Poland (2)Béla I of Hungary (1)Béla IV of Hungary (1)
CILGCRGIIH
Conrad I, Count of Luxembourg (1)Giselbert, Count of Roucy (1)Géza II of Hungary (2)
GPSH3GHIR
Gertrude of Saxony (1)Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor (3)Hugues I, Count of Rethel (1)
MIGKMIIPOIS
Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (8)Mieszko II of Poland (3)Otto I, Count of Savoy (2)
PIFRDSRIK
Philippe I of France (2)Rudolf, Duke of Swabia (2)Rostislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)
UIISVIDVIID
Umberto II, Count of Savoy (2)Valdemar I of Denmark (2)Valdemar II of Denmark (1)
YIK  
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (1)  
Most connections formed:MIGK (8)B2S (4)ADA, H3G, MIIP (3)A3A, ACS, B3P, GIIH, OIS, PIF, RDS, UIIS, VID (2)Others (1)
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Reply with quote  #7 
Relationships of the European sovereigns* on the evening of 18 March 1286, the date of Alexander III of Scotland's fatal night ride (part IIIa)
Reigning MonarchAlexander III
of Scotland
Erik V
of Denmark
Daniel
of Moscow
Leo II
of Armenia
László IV
of Hungary
Rudolf I
of Germany
Magnus III
of Sweden
Václav II
of Bohemia
Eirik II
of Norway
Andronicus II
E Emperor
Edward I of England4c HIE
4c LVIF
3c1r RBIVB6c1r YIK4c FIJ5c2r PIF6c1r B2S
6c1r GVA
4c2r B3P5c1r APG
5c1r B3P
5c1r EIB
4c RBIVB7c1r OIS
Jeanne I of Navarre3c1r GID4c1r RB3B6c2r YIK4c2r FIJ4c1r ADA4c2r GCN5c2r GPS
5c2r RIF
2c1r PGI5c ADA
5c RB3B
4c1r ADA
Diniz of Portugal4c1r GLA
4c1r HIE
2c SIP7c3r O3S4c1r FIJ4c1r ADA7c GVA6c1r BVF2c1r PGI2c1r SIP4c1r ADA
Stephen Uroš II of Serbia4c1r LVIF4c1r MIGK4c1r MIGK4c2r FIJ3c B3H4c2r GCN4c1r MIGK2c1r I2A3c2r ADA3c1r ADA
Sancho IV of Castile4c1r LVIF3c1r AIP
3c1r RBIVB
4c1r MIGK4c2r FIJ2c AIIH4c2r GCN4c1r MIGK2c PGI4c AIP
4c RBIVB
4c ADA
*Excluding George Terter I of Bulgaria, but with the addition of Leo II of Armenia
Note: the relationship through Mieszko II of Poland shown in the link for Edward I and Andronicus II has been disregarded, as has the relationship through Adelaide of Susa shown between Rudolf I and Diniz, both for the same reasons as given for chart II.
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Reply with quote  #8 
Key:  
ADAAIIHAIP
Andronikos Dukas Angelos (8)András II of Hungary (1)Afonso I of Portugal (2)
APGB2SB3H
Agnes of Germany (1)Bernhard II, Duke of Saxony (1)Béla III of Hungary (1)
B3PBVFEIB
Bolesław III, Duke of Poland (2)Baudouin V, Count of Flanders (1)Etienne I, Count of Burgundy (1)
FIJGCNGID
Foulque of Jerusalem (5)Godefroy, Count of Namur (3)Guillaume I of Dampierre (1)
GLAGPSGVA
Gilbert, Lord of L'Aigle (1)Gertrude of Saxony (1)Guillaume V, Duke of Aquitaine (2)
HIEI2ALVIF
Henry I of England (2)Isaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor (1)Louis VI of France (3)
MIGKO3SOIS
Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (5)Olof III of Sweden (1)Otto I, Count of Savoy (1)
PGIPIFRB3B
Philipp of Germany (3)Philippe I of France (1)Ramon Berenguer III, C of Barcelona (2)
RBIVBRIFSIP
Ramon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona (4)Robert I, Count of Flanders (1)Sancho I of Portugal (2)
YIK  
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (2)  
Peter

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Reply with quote  #9 
Relationships of the European sovereigns* on the evening of 18 March 1286, the date of Alexander III of Scotland's fatal night ride (part IIIb)
Reigning MonarchAlexander III
of Scotland
Erik V
of Denmark
Daniel
of Moscow
Leo II
of Armenia
László IV
of Hungary
Rudolf I
of Germany
Magnus III
of Sweden
Václav II
of Bohemia
Eirik II
of Norway
Andronicus II
E Emperor
Charles II of Naples4c LVIF3c1r RBIVB6c1r YIK4c1r FIJ5c2r PIF4c1r GCN4c2r B3P5c1r APG
5c1r B3P
5c1r EIB
5c1r GCF
5c1r TIIL
4c RBIVB7c1r OIS
Henri II of Cyprus & Jerusalem4c2r LVIF5c GIXA6c2r YIK2c1r ACJ
2c1r IIJ
4c CPA7c GVA5c3r GPS4c CPA5c1r ACS
5c1r GIXA
4c1r ACS
Philippe IV of France4c1r LVIF3c1r RBIVB4c1r MIGK4c2r FIJ2c AIIH4c2r GCN4c1r MIGK2c1r AIIH4c RBIVB7c1r BIH
7c1r JCO
Alfonso III of Aragón4c1r LVIF3c1r RBIVB4c1r MIGK4c2r FIJ2c AIIH4c2r GCN4c1r MIGK2c1r AIIH4c RBIVB7c1r BIH
7c1r JCO
Jaume of Sicily4c1r LVIF3c1r RBIVB4c1r MIGK4c2r FIJ2c AIIH4c2r GCN4c1r MIGK2c1r AIIH4c RBIVB7c1r BIH
7c1r JCO
*Excluding George Terter I of Bulgaria, but with the addition of Leo II of Armenia
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Reply with quote  #10 
Key:  
ACJACSAIIH
Aimery of Cyprus and Jerusalem (1)Andronicus Comnenus (2)András II of Hungary (6)
APGB3PBIH
Agnes of Germany (1)Bolesław III, Duke of Poland (2)Béla I of Hungary (3)
CPAEIBFIJ
Constance, Princess of Antioch (2)Etienne I, Count of Burgundy (1)Foulque of Jerusalem (4)
GCFGCNGIXA
Gertrude of Flanders (1)Godefroy, Count of Namur (4)Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine (2)
GPSGVAIIJ
Gertrude of Saxony (1)Guillaume V, Duke of Aquitaine (1)Isabella I of Jerusalem (1)
JCOLVIFMIGK
John Comnenus (3)Louis VI of France (5)Mstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (6)
OISPIFRBIVB
Otto I, Count of Savoy (1)Philippe I of France (1)Ramon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona (8)
TIILYIK 
Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine (1)Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (2) 
Most connections formed:RBIVB (12)MIGK (11)FIJ (9)ADA, LVIF (8)AIIH, GCN (7)B3P, YIK (4)BIH, GVA, JCO, PGI (3)
ACS, AIP, APG, CPA, EIB, GIXA, GPS, HIE, OIS, PIF, RB3B, SIP (2)Others (1)
Peter

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Reply with quote  #11 
Combined Statistics 1286 part one: individuals forming three or more connections
CodeNameTotalIIIIIICodeNameTotalIIIIII
MIGKMstislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev19-811EDAEleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine  44--
RBIVBRamon Berenguer IV, C of Barcelona142-12I2AIsaac II Angelos, Eastern Emperor  43-  1
ADAAndronikos Dukas Angelos11-3  8OISOtto I, Count of Savoy  4-2  2
FIJFoulque of Jerusalem  9--  9PGIPhilipp of Germany  41-  3
LVIFLouis VI of France  8--  8PIFPhilippe I of France  4-2  2
AIIHAndrás II of Hungary  7--  7TISTommaso I, Count of Savoy  44--
CPAConstance, Princess of Antioch  75-  2BVHBaudouin V, Count of Hainaut  33--
GCNGodefroy, Count of Namur  7--  7GPSGertrude of Saxony  3-1  2
B3PBolesław III, Duke of Poland  6-2  4GVAGuillaume V, Duke of Aquitaine  3--  3
B2SBernhard II, Duke of Saxony  5-4  1H3GHeinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor  3-3-
CIAChaime I of Aragón  55--HIIEHenry II of England  33--
YIKYaroslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev  5-1  4JCOJohn Comnenus  3--  3
A8CAlfonso VIII of Castile  44--L8FLouis VIII of France  33--
ACSAndronicus Comnenus  4-2  2MIIPMieszko II of Poland  3-3-
B3HBéla III of Hungary  43-  1PCEPierre of Courtenay, Latin Emperor  33--
BIHBéla I of Hungary  4-1  3RBVPRamon Berenguer V, C of Provence  33--
Peter

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Reply with quote  #12 
Combined Statistics 1286 part two: individuals forming under three connections
CodeNameTotalIIIIIICodeNameTotalIIIIII
A3AAlexius III Angelus, Eastern Emperor  2-2-BIVHBéla IV of Hungary  1-1-
A7CAlfonso VII of Castile  22--BVFBaudouin V, Count of Flanders  1--  1
AIPAfonso I of Portugal  2--2CILConrad I, Count of Luxembourg  1-1-
APGAgnes of Germany  2--2GCFGertrude of Flanders  1--  1
EIBEtienne I, Count of Burgundy  2--2GCRGiselbert, Count of Roucy  1-1-
FIBFriedrich I, Holy Roman Emperor  22--GIDGuillaume I of Dampierre  1--  1
GIIHGéza II of Hungary  2-2-GLAGilbert, Lord of L'Aigle  1--  1
GIXAGuillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine  2--2HICHenri I, Count of Champagne  11--
HIEHenry I of England  2--2HIRHugues I, Count of Rethel  1-1-
RB3BRamon Berenguer III, C of Barcelona  2--2IIJIsabella I of Jerusalem  1--  1
RDSRudolf, Duke of Swabia  2-2-L7FLouis VII of France  11--
SIPSancho I of Portugal  2--2O3SOlof III of Sweden  1--  1
UIISUmberto II, Count of Savoy  2-2-P3APero III of Aragón  11--
VIDValdemar I of Denmark  2-2-PLCPierre I, Lord of Courtenay  11--
ACJAimery of Cyprus and Jerusalem  1--1RIFRobert I, Count of Flanders  1--  1
ALMAlmodis de la Marche  1-1-RIKRostislav I, Grand Prince of Kiev  1-1-
AXCAlfonso X of Castile  11--TIILThierry II, Duke of Lorraine  1--  1
B2JBaudouin II of Jerusalem  1-1-VIIDValdemar II of Denmark  1-1-
Peter

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Reply with quote  #13 

A note on posterities

Of the 20 sovereigns shown in the charts, twelve are universal ancestors of the sovereigns of today, three are ancestors of some current sovereigns, and five of none, having in fact no surviving posterity at all that we know about. George Terter of Bulgaria who is not shown not only had no known antecedents, he also has no known descendants today, though he did have children and as always unless someone died very young it is possible there are descendants we don’t know about.

Those in the first category are Erik V of Denmark, Edward I of England, Rudolf I of Germany, Jeanne I of Navarre, Magnus III of Sweden, Václav II of Bohemia, Diniz of Portugal, the Eastern Emperor Andronicus II, Sancho IV of Castile, Charles II of Naples, Philippe IV of France and Jaume of Sicily, who later as King of Aragón was Chaime II. Chaime incidentally is the Aragonese version of James. Jaume is the Catalan rendering; frankly I was unable to find what form of his name he used as Sicilian monarch, and since he wrote poetry in Catalan reasoned that he may well have thought of himself as Jaume, so used that form.

Nine of the twelve can be dealt with by tracing descent to my old standby the Emperor Ferdinand I, shown in the 1453 note part I to be a universal ancestor. The following table does just that. The exceptions are Erik V, Magnus III and Andronicus II. For all three I will refer you to the 1330 note part II. Richeza, sister of Christopher II of Denmark, is shown there to be an ancestor of Christian I of the same, proved to be a universal ancestor in the 1453 note part I again, and was Erik V’s daughter, as the link there shows. Similarly, descent was traced to Christian I from Euphemia, sister of Magnus III/IV of Norway & Sweden, She was the granddaughter of Magnus III (shown as Magnus Ladulås in the linked ancestry). Finally, by way of showing collateral descent from his grandson Andronicus III, the note proves Andronicus II to be a universal ancestor. Now, that table: 

Edward I to Ferdinand ISancho IV to Ferdinand I
Rudolf I to Ferdinand ICharles II to Ferdinand I
Jeanne I to Ferdinand IPhilippe IV to Ferdinand I
Václav II to Ferdinand IJaume to Ferdinand I
Diniz to Ferdinand I 

In all cases there were several routes I could have chosen, and in some of them you would say ‘numerous’ rather than ‘several’. The Emperor’s wife Anna Jagiello was also an option for some of the sovereigns. All the links do however trace to the Emperor himself, following the way by which the descent first entered his male line (for Sancho IV, the succession to the Crown of Castile is used instead, and for Jaume, later Chaime II, the succession to Aragón).

The three sovereigns who are ancestors of only some of today’s monarchs are Daniel of Moscow, Leo II of Armenia and Stephen Uroš II of Serbia. For Daniel, I refer to the 1453 note part III and the descents shown there from his great-great-grandson Vasily I. For Leo II, it is the 1330 note part II and his grandson Andronicus III. And for Stephen Uroš II it is the same note and his son Stephen Uroš III.

Apart from the aforementioned George Terter, the five monarchs of 1286 without a known posterity today are Alexander III of Scotland himself, the subject in a way of the thread, László IV of Hungary, Eirik II of Norway, Henri II of Cyprus and Alfonso III of Aragón. As mentioned in the introduction part I, Alexander III had two sons and a daughter by his first wife Margaret of England, but the elder son Alexander died childless aged 20, and the younger David aged just eight. The daughter, another Margaret, married Eirik II and produced a third Margaret, who inherited Scotland’s crown but died aged seven.

Alexander III had an illegitimate half-sister Margery, child of his father Alexander II and an unknown mother. Descent is traceable from her to at least one sovereign of today, but I will leave that for another thread and go back a generation to Alexander III’s grandfather William I, ‘the Lion’. His descent through legitimate lines expired with Alexander III’s granddaughter Margaret, but I will trace descent from William I’s illegitimate daughter Ada to Edward IV of England, then from him to James I/VI of England and Scotland. All contemporary sovereigns apart from Albert II of Monaco are descended from him; see the 1517 thread post #6 for Albert II’s own descent from Edward IV, via his daughter Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry VII.

László IV had no known children, but descent from his full sister Maria, Queen of Naples, is universal; she was the wife of Charles II of Naples above, so see his link in the table. Apart from his daughter by Margaret of Scotland Eirik II had another daughter, Ingeborg, by his marriage to Isabella Bruce, sister of Robert I of Scotland. She married a Swedish prince and had a son, but he died in infancy. Eirik’s successor was his brother Haakon V, who as can be seen from her ancestry linked above was the maternal grandfather of Euphemia of Sweden, a universal ancestress.

That leaves Henri II and Alfonso III. Henri II had no children, so was succeeded by his nephew Hugues IV, son of his brother Guy, Constable of Cyprus. Hugues IV was shown in the 1330 note part I to be a universal ancestor. Alfonso III was affianced but died before he could wed, and with no known illegitimate children. For a collateral posterity from him see his brother Jaume, covered in the table.

Peter

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Reply with quote  #14 
Anyone wishing to reply to this topic is invited to do so in the discussion thread at the top of the page. This thread is locked, for reasons explained there.
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